TYPES OF DIET
Modification of diet means changing the constituents of the diet as per the metabolic rate of the person. In disease condition, the body’s metabolic rate keeps on changing hence the diet of a normal person cannot fulfill the basic needs of providing enough calories.
Clear liquid diet: clear liquid diet is free from any solid particles. Ex: Clear soups, tea or coffee without cream etc. This is given for the patient who cannot chew or swallow the food.
Full liquid diet: Full liquid diet is composed of solids which are easily digestible, mixed in liquid. This diet is prescribed for patients who are severely ill, not able to chew or swallow but need good calories. This diet is given in between a clear liquid diet and soft diet. Ex: eggs, vegetable soup, kheer, milk etc.
Soft diet is easy for chewing and easily digestible. This diet contains all the required nutrients especially proteins and carbohydrates. It is soft in consistency, easy to chew, made up of simple, easily digested foods, containing limited fibre and does not contain rich or highly flavoured foods.
Bland diet is free from all spices and condiments and is basically used to prevent peptic ulcers.
A Normal diet is defined as one which consists of any and all foods eaten by a person in health. As there is no restriction of any kind of food, this diet is well balanced and nutritionally adequate.
· Low fibre diet
· High fibre diet
· High calorie and low calorie diet
· High fat and low fat diet
· High protein and low protein diet
· Low sodium diet
Modification in diet is done for various diseases in different pattern.
Food consumption in the clients with different diseases is altered. Different techniques used in hospitals for such patients are:
· Tube feeding
· Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN)
Tube feeding is commonly done by using nasogastric tubes of different sizes. Nasogastric tube is inserted from nose to stomach. The tube is inserted gently upto the marking roughly estimated. Then it is strapped at the forehead. Then placement of tube is assessed either using stethoscope or aspiration of gastric juice from stomach. Feed is given through the tube until the patient is able to eat by mouth. This method is easier, simple method for helpless patients who are not able to take the food orally. Full fluid diets or commercial formulas may be administered through this route.
The tube may be passed through the nose into the stomach (nasogastric), duodenum (nasoduodenal) or jejunum (nasojejunal).
When there is an obstruction in the esophagus, enteral feeding is done by passing a tube surgically through an incision in the abdominal wall into the stomach (gastrostomy), duodenum (duodenostomy) or jejunum (jejunostomy).
The delivery of nutrients directly into the circulation through the peripheral or central vein is termed as parenteral nutrition. This technique is used for long term purpose. In this method, a cannula is inserted in large veins to reach superior vena cava in the heart.