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Nutrition - Therapeutic Diets | 12th Nursing : Chapter 4 : Nutrition

Chapter: 12th Nursing : Chapter 4 : Nutrition

Therapeutic Diets

Home Made recipe - The “simple solution” Preparing.


Diet in Fever

The nutritional requirements depend on the nature, severity and duration of the fever. During fever the caloric requirements increases. Frequent feeding must be and fats must be restricted. Fluid intake must be from 3000-5000 ml in various forms. Readily digestible foods must be given.

Foods to be given

·           Plenty of fluids like juices, soups

·           Milk, and milk based beverages

·           Low fibre foods

·           High protein foods such as eggs, milk, fish etc.

·            Plain gelatin based desserts, sugars, honey and jams

Foods to be restricted

·           High fibre foods like whole grain cereals, whole wheat flour and pulses

·           All raw vegetables and fruits except papaya and banana

·           Fried fatty foods such as samosa, pakodas, halwa etc

·            Chemical irritants such as condiments, spices, pickles, chutneys etc should be avoided

Diet in Constipation

Constipation is decreased frequency of passing stools or complete retention of faeces. The diet should include foods rich in fibre content like whole cereals, legumes and vegetables. Other foods such as fruits rich in fibre e.g. banana, apple, guava etc. more of fluids should be consumed in any form.

Diet in Diarrhoea

Diarrhoea is increased frequency of loose or watery stools. It occurs in infectious condition of colon. Diet must include mainly fluids like oral boiled water containing electrolyte salts, i.e glucose and sodium chloride. Fluids should be given frequently. Gradually fruit juices, butter milk, diluted milk must be introduced. During treatment phase soft bland diet like milk pudding, rice dhal gruel etc. can be started. Oral rehydration solution must be given which fulfills the nutritional and electrolyte balance.

Oral Rehydration Solution

Home Made ORS recipe - The “simple solution” Preparing.

One (1) Litre Oral Rehydration Solution [ORS] using Salt, Sugar and Water at Home.


Half (1/2) level teaspoon of Salt.

Six (6) level teaspoons of Sugar.

One (1) Litre of clean drinking or boiled water and then cooled 5 cupfuls (each cup about 200 ml).

Preparation Method: Stir the mixture till the salt and sugar dissolve.

Diet in Cardiovascular Diseases

Cardiovascular diseases are the diseases of the heart and blood vessels. They include hypertension, angina pectoris, ischemic heart diseases and myocardial infarction.

Foods to be included

·           Foods low in cholesterol and saturated fat

·           Skimmed milk, cereals, pulses

·           Whole grains

·           All vegetables and fruits

·           High fibre diet

·           Lean meat, egg white and fish

·           Vegetable oils, sugar and jaggery

Foods to be avoided

·           Fat rich foods

·           Whole milk, butter, cream, cheese

·           Indian sweet meals like puddings and bakery.

·           Organ meats, egg yolk, fish

·           Nuts, oil seeds, pickles

·           Vanaspati, fried food, alcohol

·           Salt intake should be restricted to 5gm/ day

Diet in Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus is an endocrine condition in which there is an increases amount of blood sugar due to abnormal synthesis and function of insulin. Diet must be restricted in calories and sugars to maintain the normal blood sugar levels. Protein, all vitamins and fibre rich diet can be given. Fluid intake can be adequate. Carbohydrate (40%) and fats (20%) must be limited.

Foods to be included

Green leafy vegetables, fruits except banana, lemon, clear soups, onion, mint, spices, salads, plain coffee or tea, skimmed and butter milk.

Taken in Moderation

Fats, cereals, pulses, meat, egg, nuts, roots, fruits.

Foods to be avoided

Simple sugars (glucose, honey, syrup, sweets, dried fruits, cake, candy, fried foods, alcohol, nuts, jaggery, sweetened juices.

Diet in Renal Failure

Renal failure is accumulation of urea in the blood and tissues. It may be acute or chronic. In this condition glomerular function is affected. The diet should be low in protein content, sodium, potassium and high in calories. Salt should be restricted.

Foods to be included

·           Milk and its products in needed quantity.

·           Ghee, oil, sugar, potatoes and other starchy foods can be used to increase the palatability of foods.

·           Fruits without potassium can be taken.

·           Spices and condiments in small amounts can be taken.

Foods to be avoided

·           Meat, poultry and fish.

·           Dry fruits like almonds, peanuts, Cashewnuts and walnuts.

·           Extra pulses, cereals, legumes, peas and beans.

·           Cakes, biscuits and bakery products.

·           Fruits if potassium is restricted

·            Green leafy vegetables if potassium is restricted


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