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Types and Components of floors

The floor must satisfy the following requirements Adequate strength and stability Adequate fire resistance Sound proof Damp resistance Thermal insulations

FLOORS

 

The purpose of floor is to provide a level surface capable of supporting the occupants of the building, furniture, equipment and some time interior wall

 

The floor must satisfy the following requirements

 

Adequate strength and stability

Adequate fire resistance

Sound proof

Damp resistance

Thermal insulations

 

1.Components of a floor

 

Sub floor, basecourse or floor base

 

Floor covering or flooring

 

Selection of flooring materials

 

Factor that affect the choice of flooring

 

Initial cost

Appearance

Cleanliness

Durability

Damp resistance

Sound insulation

Thermal insulation

Fire resistance

Smoothness

Hardness

Maintenance

 

2.Types of flooring

 

Mud flooring and muram flooring

Brick flooring

 

Flag stone flooring cement concrete flooring

 

Terrazzo flooring

 

Mosaic flooring

Tiled flooring

Marble flooring timber flooring

Asphalt flooring

Rubber flooring

Linoleum flooring

Cork flooring


 

 

Double are masons

Glass flooring

 

Plastic or pvc flooring

 

 

Mud flooring and muram flooring

 

This type of flooring is cheap, hard highly impervious

 

It is easy to construct and easy to maintain

 

It has good thermal insulation property due to which it remains cool in summer and warm in winter

 

Over a well prepared ground 25 cm thick selected moist earth is spread and it rammed well to compacted thickness of 15cm

 

In order to prevent cracks small quantity of chopped straw is mixed

 

Muram flooring

 

Muram is a form of disintegrated rock with binding material

 

To construct such a floor a 15 cm thick layer muram is laid over prepared sub grade over it 2.5 cm thick powder layer of muram is spread and rammed

 

 

Brick flooring

 

The sub grade is compacted properly, to the desired leveland 7.5 cm thick layer is spread

 

Over this a course of brick is laid flat in mortar is built

 

Such flooring is used in cheap construction, especially where good bricks are available

 

Flag stone flooring

 

Flag stone is laminated sand stone available in 2cm to 4cm thickness in the form of stone slab of 30X30 cm or 45X45cm and 60X60 cm

 

This type of works also called paving.

 

The stones are laid on concrete base the subsoil is properly compacted over which 10 to of lime concrete or lean cement concrete is laid

 

Cement concrete flooring

 

This is commonly used for residential, commercial even industrial building..

 

It is moderately cheap quite durable and easy to construct

 

Double are masons

 

The floor consist of two components

 

Base concrete

 

Topping or wearing surface

 

 

The base course ma be 7.5 to 10 cm thick

 

The topping consist of 1:2:4 cement concrete

 

Terrazzo flooring

 

Terrazzo flooring is another type of floor finish that is laid in thin layer over concrete topping

 

It is very decorative and good wearing properties

 

Terrazzo is a specially prepare concrete surface containing cement and marble chips in the proportion to 1:1 1/4 to 1:2

 

When the surface has set the chips are exposed by grinding operation

 

Mosaic flooring

 

Mosaic flooring Is made of small pieces of broken tiles of china glazed or of cement or of marble arranged in different pattern

 

These pieces are cut to desired shape and sizes

 

a concrete base is prepare as in the case of concrete flooring over that 5to8 thick lime surkhi mortar is spread over an area, over this 3mm thick cementing paste is layered and is left to dry about 4 hours, there after small pieces of broken tiles or marble pieces of different colors arranged definite pattern and hammered in different layers

 

Tiled flooring

 

Tiledflooring is constructed from square, hexagonal or other shapes made up of clay cement concrete and terrazzo. These are available In various thickness

 

Thes are commonly used in residential houses, schools, hospitals and other public buildings

 

Over the concrete base a 25 to 30 mm thick layr of lime mortar 1:3 to serve as a bedding The bedding mortar is allowed to harden for 12 to 24 hours

 

Neat cement slurry is spread over it and the tiles are laid flat over it

 

Marble flooring

 

It is the superior type of  flooring used in bathrooms and kitchens of residential building and

 

hospitals ,sanitorium ,temples etc

 

 

After the preparation of base concrete 20 mm thick bed layer of 1:4 cement mix spread under the



Double are masons

 

area of each individual slabs.

 

The marble layer is then laid over it and pressed with wooden mallet and leveled

 

Timber flooring

 

Timber flooring is used for carpentry halls ,dancing halls auditorium

Etc

These are not commonly usedin India because its costlier

 

But hilly area where wood is available and temperature drops very low timber flooring is quite common

 

The suspended type of wooden floor is supported above the ground

 

The solid type of wooden floor is fully supported on the ground

 


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