Children will be able to:
•understand the importance of transport.
•list the various modes of transport.
•describe each mode of transport.
Transport is the movement of people, animals and things from one place to another.
Modes of Transport
There are different modes of transport in India.
Before the invention of wheels, humans used to walk everywhere. They used bullock carts to cover distances. Even today, many use bicycles which are eco friendly to travel.
India has been building roads since old times. Roadways connect the nook and corners of our country.
National Highways (NH) -These are the main roads connecting cities in the country. e.g. NH 44 runs from Srinagar to Kanniyakumari. The Golden Quadrilateral road connects the four major cities - Chennai, Mumbai, Delhi and Kolkata in India.
State Highways (SH) - These are the roads connecting important cities within the state. e.g. SH 4 runs from Arcot to Villupuram.
District Roads - They are of two types - Major District Roads (M.D.R.) and OtherDistrict Roads (O.D.R.). These roads connect markets and offices in the district.
Village Roads - These roads connect villages or a group of villages with each other and also to other major roads near it.
Bus is the most important means of public transport system in India. Buses are managed by the respective State governments. Many State governments have introduced air-conditioned buses and sleeper buses. The Chennai Mofussil Bus Terminus is the largest bus terminus in Asia.
Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) is a high quality bus - based transit system. It has been introduced in some cities in India. The BRTS ensured that there are roadways that only buses can use
Stick pictures of any two forms of land transport that you use everyday.
Railway is the most important form of transport system connecting various states in India. The first railway line was laid between Mumbai and Thane in 1853.
One of the earliest railway stations built in Tamil Nadu was in Royapuram in the year 1856. Steam engines were used in the beginning. From steam engines to high speed rail, the growth of Indian Railways over the past 170 years has been vast and it has contributed to the development of India.
Major Rail links from Tamil Nadu
There are also sub -urban rails that connect different places within a city. The first modern rapid transit system in India is the Kolkata Metro Rail System. The Chennai Metro Rail was started in the year 2015.
DO YOU KNOW?
Indian Railways is the 4th largest network in the world. Darjeeling Himalayan Rail in West Bengal is a World Heritage Site and it is the only steam operated railway in India.
Stick pictures of different forms of railways (ex: metro, steam, high speed) and write their names below it.
India has a very long coastline and hence ports remain main centers for trade.
Oceanic or Coastal water transport
India has 13 major ports and Tamil Nadu is the only state in India that has three major ports: Ennore, Chennai and Tuticorin. Shipping Corporation of India, a government owned company manages all offshore and other marine transport related infrastructure in the country.
Water transport happens through:
2. Speed Boat
The boats are widely used for fishing in Tamil Nadu.
1. Which is the only state in India that has more than 2 ports ?
Answer: Tamil Nadu
2. Name the ports in Tamil Nadu.
Answer: Ennore, Chennai and Tuticorin.
3. Name the government agency that handles marine transport related infrastructure in the country.
Answer: Shipping Corporation of India.
Air transport is the fastest way to travel to different parts of the world. The very first air service of Asia was inaugurated by India in the year 1914 by Post and Telegraph Department by carrying mail from Take off of a flight Allahabad to Naini across the Ganga river. In Tamil Nadu there are 4 international airports at Chennai, Coimbatore, Madurai and Tiruchirappalli.
Airlines plays a huge role in connecting cities within the country and across the world.
Helicopters are used for short distances and in hilly regions like Haridwar, Badrinath, Kedarnath and Darjeeling.
Collect pictures of any three international airports of India, stick it and write their names.
DO YOU KNOW?
India has the world‛s highest helipad at the Siachen glacier which is 21,000 feet above sea level.
Advantages of transport
1) Growth of agricultural and industrial production
Transport system plays a huge role in the growth of agricultural and industrial production by carrying raw materials to different parts of the country.
2) Growth in trade
It helps in promoting trade in the country. Transport plays a key role in the country‛s export and import of goods.
3) Promotes tourism
It helps people from different countries to visit other countries. Without a good transport system, promotion of tourism is not possible.
Try to Answer
1. Which is used to travel short distance in airways?
2. How many international airports are there in Tamil Nadu?
Answer: There are four International airports in Tamil Nadu.
1. Trade - Buying and selling of goods and services.
2. Import - Buying of goods or services from another country.
3. Export - Selling goods or services to another country.
4. Helipad - Place where helicopters land.
•Transport is the movement of people, animals and things from one place to another.
•The four modes of transport are roadways, railways, waterways and airways.
•Roadways are used to travel by bicycles, buses and cars etc. The four types of roadways are National Highways, State Highways, District Roads and Village Roads.
•Railways is the most important mode of transport which connects the states.
•Waterways include the transport done through water bodies. It happens through boats, speed boats and ships.
•Airways is the fastest way to travel. We use aeroplanes and helicopters for air travel.