Note-making involves the fundamental skills of reading and writing.
We make notes to record the important points of a text for future reference.
Note-making is a study skill that helps to make notes of important points from a long text.
It is particularly useful to store and retrieve information in the form of a summary.
◆ First, the main points and supporting details should be identified. The main information should be condensed and organised in a systematic way.
◆ To avoid difficulty in recollecting information, symbols or abbreviations should be used while making notes. But these should be clear enough to recall or understand later.
◆ Notes need not be in complete sentences.
◆ Notes should be shorter than the original text.
◆ Main points and supporting details should be clearly distinguished.
◆ Functional words like articles, relative pronouns should be avoided.
◆ Headings and sub headings should be numbered.
1. The Rome 1960 Paralympic Games was a tremendous step in sports for athletes with a physical impairment. The founder of the Paralympics movement, Sir Ludwig Guttmann, and the director of the spinal centre in Rome, Antonia Maglio, started preparations for the games two years ago. It would be called the 9th Annual International Stoke Mandeville Games. Now regarded as the Rome 1960 Paralympic Games, the competition took place for six days following the closing ceremony of the XVII Olympic Games and was supported by the Italian Olympic Committee and the Italian Institute for Disabled Workers.
2. A total of eight different sports events debuted at the first-ever paralympic Games, all of which were considered beneficial and suitable for athletes with spinal cord injuries: archery, IPC athletics, dart, snooker, IPC swimming, table tennis, wheelchair-basketball and wheelchair fencing.
3. The opening ceremony on 18 September 1960 garnered a crowd of 5000 spectators, which greeted the wheelchair athletes during their colourful entry into Acqua Acetosa stadium. The Italian Minister for Public Health at the time, officially declared the games open to the world. In the debut of the Paralympic games on the world stage, the host nation Italy finished atop the medal standings, as Great Britain, Germany, Austria and the USA rounded out the top five with stellar performances.
4. The closing ceremony on 25th September was held in the Palazetto Dello in the Olympic village in the presence of Sir Guttmann, the patron of the Games. Sir Guttmann summed up the Games saying: “The vast majority of competitors and escorts have fully understood the meaning of the Rome Games as a new pattern of reintegration of the paralysed into society, as well as the whole of sport.”
1. Origin of Paralympic games
a. sports for the phy. Impaired
b. Founder i.Sir Ludwig Guttman
1960 first Paralympic
d. conducted for 6 days
e. supp.d by i. Italian Olym. Committee &Italian Inst. for Disabled Workers
a. 8 events
i. suitable for athletes with spinal inj.s
3. Opening ceremony
a. 18th Sept.
b. 5000 spectators
c. colourful entry of wheelchair athletes
4. Closing ceremony
a. 25th Sept.
b. host Italy finished atop
c. Sir Guttman summed up
i. reintegration of paralyzed into soc. and sports
Summarising is to briefly sum up the various points given in the notes made from the original passage. It is a retrieval of information from the notes made. Hence, while writing it, one need not go back to the original passage but refer only to the notes made. A first draft will help us to write a fair summary.
In 1960, Sir Ludwig Guttmann founded the Paralympic Games in Rome for the physically impaired. The games, supported by Italian Olympic Committee and the Italian Institute for Disabled Workers, took place for six days. Eight different sports events conducted were suitable for the disabled. During the opening ceremony on 18th September, five thousand spectators greeted the wheelchair athletes’ colourful entry. The host Italy finished atop and during the closing ceremony, the founder said that the Games were a new pattern of re-integration of the paralysed into society and sports.
Task : On the basis of your understanding of the given sample, make notes of the following text and write a summary in about 75 words.
Looking at the modern children, one striking difference between the childhood that the previous generation had and the one that this generation has is the lack of Indian or native games. In the 1970’s, people used to play a variety of indoor and outdoor games that were the games of this soil. Nowadays almost all Children play games like cricket, tennis and football. Nobody is playing games like Kabaddi, Goli, Ghilli or Indoor games like the Dhaayakattam, Paramapadham, Pallanguzhi, Paandi or Aadupuliaattam. These games have a rich culture and heritage value and were tools of passing on some ancestral knowledge or the other. They also sharpened our observational and math skills unlike the hit and run games of the west that are uni-dimensional and strengthen only hand-eye coordination.
Traditional Games were not just games, they were designed in such a way that one can develop lot of skills like logical thinking, building strategy, concentration, basic mathematics, aiming, and a lot more. Nowadays we develop these skills by paying money to centres that conduct personal development courses. Traditional Games act as learning aids. They teach us many things while playing, like to learn to win and lose, develop sensory skills, count, add, improve motor skills, identify colour, improve hand-eye co-ordination and finally to have fun, either by playing the game or watching a game being played.
The values that we achieve by playing these games are more when compared to the games that we play nowadays. Some of the values that we gain are that they are environment friendly, we get a chance to learn about our culture and history, and an important thing is, it is suitable for all ages, so they increase the interaction between generations. Many modern games played around the world have their origin in these traditional games which is a pride to our country’s culture.
C. Debate is an essential skill and your class room is the best place to practice this skill. Your teacher will now divide the class into two groups and organize a debate on the topic “Fast food tastes better than nutritious food.” The following points may help you to participate and speak in a debate. One group will speak FOR the motion and the other group will speak AGAINST the motion. Now prepare a speech for the debate.
1. Start with a greeting and introduce yourself.
2. State your topic and inform whether you are speaking for or against.
3. Gather sufficient information.
4. Keep track of the stipulated time.
5. Listen carefully to the opponents and present your rebuttal convincingly.
6. Accept the judgement.
◆ We strongly believe that …………
◆ Before I come to my own argument, let us have a look at what my opposition ……..
◆ I see your point, but I think …………..
◆ I’m afraid I can’t quite agree with your point …………
◆ I would like to point out that…………
Writing creative, unique, professional and fruitful articles is rewarding if one perfects the art. This is a vast field that includes magazine articles, website content articles, blogs, journals and newspaper articles.
Format of Newspaper Article
1. Headlines or title
The title of your news articles should be catchy.
Byline is the name of the writer.
Tells what the article is about
4. Develop cause, effect, relationship Use facts
Give examples to support your views
Use clear and precise language
5. Compare and contrast views, points of view or information.
6. Conclusion Summing up Offering suggestions Personal predictions
By M. Sathyapriya, XI-F
The aim of education is to enable the human personality to grow to its full stature. We have a body, a mind and a spirit. Accordingly, education aims at our physical, intellectual, spiritual and moral development.
Games are a means of keeping the body healthy and fit. Physical fitness and freedom from all kinds of ailments are the desire and ambition of every human being. Indeed, good health is the first condition of happiness in life. Those who play games generally maintain good health. Games are an excellent means of bodily exercise. Whether it is sophisticated games like hockey, football and tennis or simple games like Kabaddi, they provide the much needed exercise to the body and thus keep the body healthy and strong. Players always have a better appetite and a better digestion than those who play no games or do exercises. Games not only make the body healthy and strong, but also make it muscular.
Apart from building the body, games are an excellent recreation or pastime. Education teaches people the need and value of recreational activities. Education does not approve of the book-worm, who is lost in books all the time. Recreation is necessary. And games are among the most interesting recreations in the world. The essence of recreation is that it refreshes both body and mind and provides a means of escape from one’s professional or scholarly pursuits. Thus games are very useful as a diversion for the mind.
Task: Read and understand the data presented in the pie-chart below on factors affecting health, and write an article for your school magazine highlighting the fact that it’s our lifestyle that determines how healthy we remain. Write your article in about 150 words .Give a suitable title too.
The factors which affect health are given percentage-wise in the pie-chart.
This pie chart shows the factors which affect
the health of the people in percentage-wise. The maximum percentage is 20% on
Genetics. Genetics play a vital role in affecting health. It has been reducing
a lot nowadays. The next factor is environment. Pollution paves the way for the
worst health and for new diseases. It is in our hands to protect our
environment. Medical facilities too affect our health in certain percentage.
The major factor that affects our health is our life style. It inludes smoking,
obesity, stress, diet & nutrition and blood pressure. Smoking not only
affects the smokers but also the persons near to them. Lack of physical
exercise, children are affected by Obesity. Fast food is another important
factor for affecting our health. It results in blood pressure and other cardiac
diseases. To lead a healthy life, We have to follow our traditional food and regular