The Environmental factors that affect the pavement materials
Environmental factors affect the performance of the pavement materials and cause various damages. Environ-mental factors that affect pavement are of two types, temperature and precipitation and they are discussed below:
The effect of temperature on asphalt pavements is different from that of concrete pavements.
Temperature affects the resilient modulus of asphalt layers, while it induces curling of concrete slab. In rigid pavements, due to difference in temperatures of top and bottom of slab, temperature stresses or frictional stresses are developed. While in flexible pavement, dynamic modulus of asphaltic concrete varies with temperature. Frost heave causes differential settlements and pavement roughness. Most detrimental effect of frost penetration occurs during the spring break up period when the ice melts and subgrade is a saturated condition.