Testing of Bushings
Bushings are an integral component of high voltage machines. A bushing is used to bring high voltage conductors through the grounded tank or body of the electrical equipment without excessive potential gradients between the conductor and the edge of the hole in the body. The bushing extends into the surface of the oil at one end and the other end is carried above the tank to a height sufficient to prevent breakdown due to surface leakage.
The bushing is installed as in service or immersed in oil. The high voltage terminal of the bushing is connected to high voltage terminal of the Schering Bridge and the tank or earth portion of the bushing is connected to the detector of the bridge. The capacitance and p.f. of the bushing is measured at different voltages as specified in the relevant specification and the capacitance and p.f. should be within the range specified.
The bushing is subjected to impulse waves of either polarity or magnitude as specified in the standard specification. Five consecutive full waves of standard wave form (1/50 μ sec.) are applied and if two of them cause flash over, the bushing is said to be defective. If only one flash
Chopped wave and switching surge of appropriate duration tests are carried out on high voltage bushings. The procedure is identical to the one given in (ii) above.
In order to determine whether there is deterioration or not of the insulation used in the bushing, this test is carried out. The shape of the discharge is an indication of nature and severity of the defect in the bushing. This is considered to be a routine test for High voltage bushings.
The test is carried out to ascertain whether the given bushing will give rise to ratio interference or not during operation. The test is carried out in a dark room. The voltage as specified is applied to the bushing (IS 2099). No discharge other than that from the grading rings or arcing horns should be visible.
(Under Oil): The bushing is either immersed fully in oil or is installed as in service condition. This test is carried out to ascertain that the internal breakdown strength of the bushing is 15% more than the power frequency momentary dry withstand test value.