Technology and human resources
The existence of tested technologies, or the ability to develop or adapt existing technologies to suit local conditions, is an important aspect to be taken into account in a planning exercise. As problems of aquaculture are very often site-specific, even well-established technologies have to be adapted or modified for local application and tested to determine their economic viability. This would require at least minimum research capability and facilities. Large-scale developments often necessitate a regular health inspection and disease diagnostic programme and this could form a part of the research establishment or an extension service attached to it. The development of appropriate human resources should form part of any national aquaculture development plan. The primary importance of hands-on experience in successful farming has been shown all over the world. While traditionally the skills have been passed from father to son, in modern large-scale rapid development programmes it may not be feasible to follow this practice. Organized, institutionalized training may be needed for farm managers and technicians. Since aquaculture is interdisciplinary by nature, specialized training programmes will be required for major categories of personnel. Through analysis of farm performance data, basic guidelines for farm management have to be developed and farm managers must be trained in the use of relevant methods.
Universities and specialized research institutes will be the major sources of research personnel. Depending on the organization of aquaculture in the country (small-scale, large or industrial-scale), a suitable extension machinery with the appropriate number of adequately trained and experienced extension personnel will have to be built up. Extension officers have to be well-trained technicians with the necessary field experience and proficiency in extension methodologies. A combination of institutionalized and on-the-job training may, therefore, be required for extension personnel.