SYSTEM LOAD VARIATION
The variation of load on the power station with respect to time.
• From system‟s point of view, there are 5 broad category of loads:
5. Others - street lights, traction.
domestic appliances like heaters,
Ø refrigerators, air conditioners,
Ø small motors etc.
1. Demand factor = 0.7 to 1.0;
2. Diversity factor = 1.2 to 1.3;
3. Load factor = 0.1 to 0.15
Lightings for shops, advertising hoardings, fans, AC etc.
1. Demand factor = 0.9 to 1.0;
2. Diversity factor = 1.1 to 1.2;
3. Load factor = 0.25 to 0.3
Small scale industries: 0-20kW
Medium scale industries: 20-100kW
Large scale industries: above 100kW
Industrial loads need power over a longer period which remains fairly uniform throughout the day.
1. Demand factor = 0.85 to 0.9;
2. Load factor = 0.7 to 0.8
Supplying water for irrigation using pumps driven by motors
1. Demand factor = 0.9 to 1;
2. Diversity factor = 1.0 to 1.5;
3. Load factor = 0.15 to 0.25
a) Bulk supplies,
b) street lights,
d) government loads
which have their own peculiar characteristics
a) Connected Load
b) Maximum Demand
c) Average Load
d) Load Factor
e) Diversity Factor
f) Plant Capacity Factor
g) Plant Use Factor
It is the ratio of actual energy produced to the maximum possible energy that could have been produced during a given period.
It is the ratio of kWh generated to the product of plant capacity and the number of hours for which the plant was in operation.
Plant use factor = Station output in kWh / Plant capacity * Hours of use
When the elements of a load curve are arranged in the order of descending magnitudes.