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Summary - Europe in Turmoil
Liberalism and nationalism joining hands to fight for democracy and Industrial Revolution leading to the rise of working class movements and the coming of socialism are explained.
The early socialists and Marx and their contribution are discussed.
The Chartist Movement in England and its tragic end without achieving its objectives are analysed.
The 1830 and the 1848 revolutions and the growing aggressive nature of nationalism leaving its liberal thrust in western Europe are highlighted.
Ascendency of nationalism in Italy and Germany that emerged as nation states are detailed.
The built-in weakness of the capitalist system during the long depression of 1873-1896, and the growing militancy of the labour that was unscrupulously dealt with by the capitalists in collusion with the state are analysed.
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