Safety and First Aid
First aid is the immediate treatment given to the victim of trauma or sudden illness before medical help is made available.
The first aid is
* To save the life
* To prevent further bleeding and determine the condition of the patient
* To relieve the pain
* To provide a medical care available at the earliest
The tissue damage caused by heat, chemical, electricity, sunlight or nuclear radiation is known as Burns. Mostly burns are caused by scalds, building fires, flammable liquid and gases. There are three types of burns, according to degree of burning.
* First-degree burns affect only the outer layer (called the epidermis) of the skin
* Second-degree burns damage the epidermis and the layer beneath it (called the dermis)
* Third-degree burns involve damage or complete destruction of the skin to its full depth and damage to underlying tissues also. People who experience such burns often require skin grafting.
First Aid for Burning
In case of minor burns, the affected area should be washed with cold water and an antiseptic cream should be applied. In case of severe burns, where deeper layers of tissues get destroyed and blisters appear, use of water should be avoided. The burnt area should be covered with a clean non- sticking cloth or bandages. Larger burns need immediate medical attention.
It is very important to keep a fire extinguisher readily available.
2. Cut and Scratches
Cuts and scratches are areas of damage on the surface of the skin. A cut is a line of damage that can go through the skin and into the muscle tissues below, whereas a scratch is surface damage that does not penetrate the lower tissues.
Cuts and scratches may bleed or turn red, become infected and leave scars.
First aid for cuts
For minor cuts, the affected area should be washed with cold running water and cleaned with an antiseptic liquid. Then apply an antiseptic cream on the wound and sterilized bandage should be tied to prevent infection. If the cut is deep, a clean cotton pad should be placed on the cut and pressed, and the injured person should be taken to a doctor immediately.
Basic cleanliness and protection.
1. The most important thing is to help anybody, but you must also protect yourself from HIV and other blood-borne diseases when you help someone who is bleeding. You should wear gloves or a clean plastic bag on your hands.
2. Be careful not to prick yourself with needles or other sharp objects around the person you are helping.