Role of Family and Society
need for openness of a system. McClelland's need for exibility in a role of
relation implied the need for the possibility of mobility with in a system for
contrast, group of scholar who express the view that a lack of mobility
possibilities promotes entrepreneurship. Some even speak of entrepreneurship as
in to a action in a rigid social system. Third opinion is the combination of
exibility and the denial of social mobility. It is also printed out that the
degree and nature of social mobility alone is not likely to inuence
entrepreneurship, it as determined by other non economic factors.
hold a strong view that social marginalized also promotes entrepreneurship.
They believe that individuals are grouped on the perimeter of a given social
system or between two social systems provide the personnel to assume the
may be drawn from religious cultural, ethinic or migrant minority groups and
their marginal social position is generally believed to have psychological e
ects which make entrepreneurship particularly attractive for them.
security is an important facilitator of entrepreneurial behaviors. Scholars are
not consensus (same) on the amount of security that is needed.
regard security to be a signi cant factor for entrepreneurship development.
This is reasonable too because if individuals are fearful of tossing their
McClelland's theory of need achievement states that, a constellation
(gathering) of personality characteristics which are indicative of high need
achievement is the major determinant of entrepreneurship development.
level of need achievement in a society is relatively high, one could expect a
relatively high amount of ED in the society'.
encourage the impact of motivation for achievement, many training programs are
organized by the SIEI - Small Industries Extension training Institute.
Withdrawal of status respect:
believes the initial condition leading to eventual entrepreneurial behavior is
the loss of status by a group. He postulates four types of events that can
produce status withdrawals,
3. The group
may be displaced by force,
4. It may
have its valued symbols denigrated
5. It may
drift from into a situation of status inconsistency.
6. It may
not be accepted the expected status or migration in a new society.
further postulates that with drawal of status of respect would give rise to
four personality types:
he who continues to work in a society but remains di erent to his work and
he who adopts a kind of defensive behavior and acts in the way accepted and
approved in his society but no hopes of improving his position.
he is a person who foments a rebellion and attempts to establish a new society.
he is a person who is creative individual and is likely to be an entrepreneur.
maintains that once status withdraws has occurred, the sequence of change
information of personality is set in motion, he refers that 'Status with drawl
takes a long period of time as much as 4 or 5 generations to result in the
emergence of ED'.
Government Actions (Factors):
by its actions or failure to act does in uence both the economic and
non-economic factor for entrepreneurship. Any interested government in economic
development can help through its clearly expressed policies, promoting
entrepreneurship, creating basic facilities, utilities and services providing
incentives and concessions, providing good facilitative socio economic setting
to minimize the risks for entrepreneur.'to conclude, in the societies where the
government was committed to their economic development, entrepreneurship
remains that the various factors are observed in the preceding pages will cause
emergence of entrepreneurship are integral, interlocking, mutually dependent
and mutually reinforcing.
whole, the various factors in uencing the emergence of entrepreneurship can now
be put as per the following model developed by Abdul Aziz Mahmud.