Role of Family and Society
Hoselitz's need for openness of a system. McClelland's need for exibility in a role of relation implied the need for the possibility of mobility with in a system for entrepreneurship development.
In contrast, group of scholar who express the view that a lack of mobility possibilities promotes entrepreneurship. Some even speak of entrepreneurship as in to a action in a rigid social system. Third opinion is the combination of exibility and the denial of social mobility. It is also printed out that the degree and nature of social mobility alone is not likely to inuence entrepreneurship, it as determined by other non economic factors.
Scholars hold a strong view that social marginalized also promotes entrepreneurship. They believe that individuals are grouped on the perimeter of a given social system or between two social systems provide the personnel to assume the entrepreneurial roles.
People may be drawn from religious cultural, ethinic or migrant minority groups and their marginal social position is generally believed to have psychological e ects which make entrepreneurship particularly attractive for them.
Entrepreneurial security is an important facilitator of entrepreneurial behaviors. Scholars are not consensus (same) on the amount of security that is needed.
We also regard security to be a signi cant factor for entrepreneurship development. This is reasonable too because if individuals are fearful of tossing their economic assets.
· Need achievement:
David McClelland's theory of need achievement states that, a constellation (gathering) of personality characteristics which are indicative of high need achievement is the major determinant of entrepreneurship development.
'Average level of need achievement in a society is relatively high, one could expect a relatively high amount of ED in the society'.
To encourage the impact of motivation for achievement, many training programs are organized by the SIEI - Small Industries Extension training Institute.
· Withdrawal of status respect:
Hagen believes the initial condition leading to eventual entrepreneurial behavior is the loss of status by a group. He postulates four types of events that can produce status withdrawals,
3. The group may be displaced by force,
4. It may have its valued symbols denigrated
5. It may drift from into a situation of status inconsistency.
6. It may not be accepted the expected status or migration in a new society.
The further postulates that with drawal of status of respect would give rise to four personality types:
1. Retreatist: he who continues to work in a society but remains di erent to his work and position.
2. Ritualist: he who adopts a kind of defensive behavior and acts in the way accepted and approved in his society but no hopes of improving his position.
3. Reformist: he is a person who foments a rebellion and attempts to establish a new society.
4. Innovator: he is a person who is creative individual and is likely to be an entrepreneur.
Hagen maintains that once status withdraws has occurred, the sequence of change information of personality is set in motion, he refers that 'Status with drawl takes a long period of time as much as 4 or 5 generations to result in the emergence of ED'.
· Government Actions (Factors):
Government by its actions or failure to act does in uence both the economic and non-economic factor for entrepreneurship. Any interested government in economic development can help through its clearly expressed policies, promoting entrepreneurship, creating basic facilities, utilities and services providing incentives and concessions, providing good facilitative socio economic setting to minimize the risks for entrepreneur.'to conclude, in the societies where the government was committed to their economic development, entrepreneurship automatically ourishes'.
The fact remains that the various factors are observed in the preceding pages will cause emergence of entrepreneurship are integral, interlocking, mutually dependent and mutually reinforcing.
On the whole, the various factors in uencing the emergence of entrepreneurship can now be put as per the following model developed by Abdul Aziz Mahmud.
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