Rise of Mussolini
Benito Mussolini was the originator of the idea of Fascism.
He was born in 1883. Mussolini's father an ironsmith, was a follower of Socialism. Hence, Mussolini was influenced by the socialistic ideology.
teacher a trade unionist and a journalist. He was imprisoned in 1908 for revolutionary ideas. In 1912 he started the editing of journal. He was a bitter opponent of the Church.
When the First World War broke out, the Italian Government decided not to take part in the War. But Mussolini propagated that the Italian Government should immediately join the war in favour of the Allies. For that Mussolini was punished. But later Italy was forced to join the war on the side of the Allies. As a result Mussolini became popular. He also participated in the war as a soldier.
The Bolshevik Revolution took place in Russia in 1917. The people of Italy also were influenced by the revolution. The communists of Italy also were planning for a massive revolution. Mussolini, who was a staunch opponent of Bolshevism, decided to start a new party to fight Communism. In march 1919 the Fascist Party was established under his leadership. The members wore black shirts and were equipped with arms. The party had its own flag. The members were well disciplined and Mussolini was their chief commander.
In the first party convention of Milan, Mussolini announced the programmes and Charter of demands of the party. They were:
·Nationalisation of factories
·Confiscation of surplus money from the capitalists
·Forfeiture of the Church property
·Eight hours work in factories
·Framing of a new constitution.
These demands of the Fascist Party soon achieved popularity in Italy. The number of members increased very rapidly. In 1919 there were only seventeen thousand members in the party. The number increased to 3 lakhs in 1922. The Fascists captured the offices of the Socialist and the Communist parties by force.
In October 1922, the Fascist Party had its party
convention at Naples. A Charter of Demands was passed at the convention. They
include induction of Fascist members in the Cabinet, new election to the
Legislatures and the adoption of a vigorous foreign policy. But the government
refused to concede. The Fascists therefore marched on to Rome, under the
leadership of Mussolini. They captured all the government officers. The
government asked the king Victor Immanuel III to promulgate martial law.
Mussolini was invited to form the ministry.
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