Requirements of Bituminous mixes
Stability is defined as the resistance of the paving mix to deformation under traffic load. Two examples of failure are (i) shoving - a transverse rigid deformation which occurs at areas subject to severe acceleration and (ii) grooving - longitudinal ridging due to channelization of traffic. Stability depend on the inter-particle friction, primarily of the aggregates and the cohesion offered by the bitumen. Sufficient binder must be available to coat all the particles at the same time should offer enough liquid friction. However, the stability decreases when the binder content is high and when the particles are kept apart.
Durability is defined as the resistance of the mix against weathering and abrasive
actions. Weathering causes hardening due to loss of volatiles in the bitumen. Abrasion is due to wheel loads which causes tensile strains. Typical examples of failure are (i) pot-holes, - deterioration of pavements locally and (ii) stripping, lost of binder from the aggregates and aggregates are exposed. Disintegration is minimized by high binder content since they cause the mix to be air and waterproof and the bitumen lm is more resistant to hardening.
Flexibility is a measure of the level of bending strength needed to counteract traffic load and prevent cracking of surface. Fracture is the cracks formed on the surface (hairline-cracks, alligator cracks), main reasons are shrinkage and brittleness of the binder. Shrinkage cracks are due to volume change in the binder due to aging. Brittleness is due to repeated bending of the surface due to traffic loads. Higher bitumen content will give better flexibility and less fracture.
It is the resistance of the finished pavement against skidding which depends on the surface texture and bitumen content. It is an important factor in high speed traffic. Normally, an open graded coarse surface texture is desirable.
Workability is the ease with which the mix can be laid and compacted, and formed to the required condition and shape. This depends on the gradation of aggregates, their shape and texture, bitumen content and its type. Angular, flaky, and elongated aggregates workability. On the other hand, rounded aggregates improve workability.