* Hazards are defined as the phenomena that pose a threat to people, structures or economic assets and which may cause disaster.
* There are three types of hazards namely natural hazards,human-made hazards and Socio-natural hazards
*Natural hazards are earthquakes, floods, cyclonic storms, droughts, landslides, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions etc.
* Human-made hazards are explosions, hazardous wastes, pollution of air, land and water, dam collapses, wars or civil conflicts, terrorism etc.
* Socio- natural hazards are caused by the combined effect of natural forces and misdeeds of human.
1. Earthquake: It is a violent tremor in the earth’s crust. நிலஅதிர்வு
2. Floods: It is a state of high water level along a river channel or on coast that leads to inundation of land. வெள்ளப்பெருக்கு
3. Drought: Any lack of water to satisfy the normal needs of agriculture, livestock, industry or human population may be termed as a drought. வறட்சி
4. Tsunami: It is a series of waves caused by the earth movements under the sea.
1. Central Board of Secondary Education – A Supplementary Text Book in Geography for Class XI (2006). Natural Hazards and Disasters (Unit 11). Natural Hazards and Disaster Management, The Secretary, Central Board of Secondary Education, Delhi.
2. Keller, E.A. and DeVecchio, D.E. (2012). Natural Hazards: Earth’s Processes as Hazards, Disasters and Catastrophes (3rd Edition), Pearson Prentice Hall, New Jersey.
3. Khullar, D.R. (2014). India: A Comprehensive Geography, Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi.
4. Manual on Natural Disasters Management in India (2001). National Centre for Disaster Management, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India, New Delhi.
5. Mohapatra, M., Mandal,G.S., Bandyopadhyay, B.K., Tyagi, A. and Mohanty, U.C. (2012). Classification of Cyclone Hazard Prone Districts of India. Natural Hazards, 63(3): 1601-1620.
6. Paul, B.K. (2011). Environmental Hazards and Disasters: Contexts, Perspectives and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Oxford.
7. Reed, S.B. (1997). Introduction to Hazards (3rd Edition). Disaster Management Training Programme, National Institute of Disaster Management, New Delhi.
8. Smith, K. and Petley, D.N. (2008). Environmental Hazards: Assessing Risk and Reducing Disaster (5th Edition), Taylor & Francis Group, London.
9. The Report of High Powered Committee on Disaster Management (2002). National Centre for Disaster Management, Indian Institute of Public Administration, New Delhi.
* http://www.searo.who.int/topics/air_pollution/what-is-air-pollution.pdf ?ua=1