I. Choose the correct answer
1. Who laid the foundation of Portuguese power in India?
a. Vasco da Gama
b. Bartholomew Diaz
c. Alfonso de Albuquerque
[Answer: (c) Alfonso de Albuquerque]
2. Which of the following European Nation was the foremost attempt to discover a sea route to India?
[Answer: (b) Portugal]
3. In 1453 Constantinople was captured by ____________.
a. The French
b. The Turks
c. The Dutch
d. The British
[Answer: (b) The Turks]
4. Sir William Hawkins belonged to ____________.
[Answer: (c) England]
5. The first fort constructed by the British in India was ____________.
a. ort William
b. Fort St.George
c. Agra Fort
d. Fort St. David
[Answer: (b) Fort St.George]
6. Who among the following Europeans were the last to come India as traders?
a. The British
b. The French
c. The Danish
d. The Portuguese
[Answer: (b) The French]
7. Tranquebar on the Tamilnadu coast was a trade centre of the ____________.
a. The Portuguese
b. The British
c. The French
d. The Danish
[Answer: (d) The Danish]
II Fill in the blanks
1. National Archives of India (NAI) is located in New Delhi.
2. Bartholomew Diaz, a Portuguese sailor was patronized by King John II.
3. The printing press in India was set up by Portuguese at Goa in 1556.
4. The Mughal Emperor Jahangir permitted the English to trade in India.
5. The French East India Company was formed by Colbert.
6. Christian IV the King of Denmark issued a charter to create Danish East India company.
III Match the following
1 The Dutch - 1664
2 The British - 1602
3 The Danish - 1600
4 The French – 1616
1. The Dutch - 1602
2. The British - 1600
3. The Danish - 1616
4. The French – 1664
IV State true or false
1. Auto biography is one of the written sources. [Answer: True]
2. Coins are one of the material sources. [Answer: True]
3. Ananda Rangam was a translator served under British. [Answer: False]
Correct statement: Ananda Rangam was a translator served under French.
4. The place where historical documents are preserved is called archives. [Answer: True]
V Consider the following statements and tick (✓) the appropriate answer
i. Governor Nino de Cunha moved Portuguese capital from Cochin to Goa.
ii. Portuguese were the last to leave from in India.
iii. The Dutch founded their first factory at Surat.
iv. Sir Thomas Roe was sent to Jahangir’s court by King James I of England.
a. i & ii are Correct.
b. ii & iv are Correct.
c. iii is correct.
d. i, ii & iv are correct.
[Answer: (d) i, ii & iv are correct]
Find out the wrong pair
a. Francis Day - Denmark
b. Pedro Cabral - Portugal
c. Captain Hawkins - Britain
d. Colbert – France
[Answer: (a) Francis Day - Denmark]
VI Answer the following in one or two sentences
1. Give a short note on Archives.
Answer: Archives is the place where historical documents are preserved. The National Archives of India (NAI) is located in New Delhi. It is the chief storehouse of the records of the government of India.
2. Write about the importance of Coins.
Answer: Coins are a good source to know about administrative history. As compared to the literary sources the chances of manipulation is very less in the case of coins. Thus they are an authentic archaelogical source.
3. Why Prince Henry is called ‘Henry the Navigator’?
Answer: Prince Henry of Portugal, who is commonly known as the “Navigator”, encouraged his countrymen to take up the adventurous life of exploring the unknown regions of the world.
4. Name the important factories established by the Dutch in India.
Answer: The important factories in India were Pulicat, Surat, Chinsura, Kasim bazaar, Patna, Nagapatnam, Balasore and Cochin.
5. Mention the trading centres of the English in India.
Answer: The English had established their trading centres at Surat, Agra, Ahmedabad and Broach.
VII Answer the following in detail
1. Give an account of the sources of Modern India.
(i) The sources for the history of modern India help us to know the political, socio-economic and cultural developments in the country.
(ii) The Portuguese, the Dutch, the French, the Danes, and the English recorded their official transactions in India on state papers.
(iii) History can be written with the help of written sources and material sources.
(iv) Written Sources: After the advent of the printing press; numerous book were published in different languages. Hence people began to acquire knowledge easily in the fields like art, literature, history and science.
(v) Written sources include Literatures, Travel Accounts, Diaries, Auto Biographies, Pamphlets, Government Documents and Manuscripts.
(vi) Archives: It has main source of information for understanding past administrative machinery as well as a guide to the present and future generations related to all matters.
(vii) Material Sources: Paintings and statues are the main sources of modern Indian history which provide information about national leaders and historical personalities and their achievements.
(viii) Historical buildings and museums preserve and promote our cultural heritage.
(ix) Coins are a good source to know about administrative history.
2. How did the Portuguese establish their trading centres in India?
(i) In A.D. 1498, Vasco da Gama reached Calicut, where he was cordially received by King Zamorin, the ruler of Calicut. A second Portuguese navigator, Pedro Alvares Cabral, sailed towards India in 1500.
(ii) Vasco da Gama came to India for the second time in 1501 with 20 ships and founded a trading centre at Cannanore.
(iii) One after another, they established factories at Calicut and Cochin.
(iv) King Zamorin attacked the Portuguese in Cochin, but was defeated.
(v) Cochin was the first capital of the Portuguese East India Company.
(vi) In 1505, Francisco de Almeida was sent as the first Governor for the Portuguese possessions in India.
(vii) Almeida had the aim of developing the naval power of the Portuguese in India. His policy was known as the “Blue Water Policy”.
(viii) Sultans of Bijapur and Gujarat were also apprehensive of the expansion of Portuguese control of ports which led to an alliance between Egypt, Turkey and Gujarat against Portuguese invaders.
(ix) In a naval battle fought near Chaul, the combined Muslim fleet won a victory over the Portuguese fleet under Almeida’s son.
(x) Almeida defeated the combined Muslim fleet in a naval battle near Diu, and by the year 1509, Portuguese claimed the naval supremacy in Asia.
(xi) The real founder of the Portuguese power in India was Alfonso de Albuquerque who captured Goa and established the Portuguese authority over Ormuz in Persian Gulf.
(xii) Governor Nino de Cunha moved capital from Cochin to Goa in 1530. In 1534, he acquired Bassein from Bahadur Shah of Gujarat, in 1537.
(xiii) During the 16th century, Portuguese succeeded in capturing Goa, Daman, Diu, Salsette, Bassein, Chaul and Bombay on the western coast, Hooghly on the Bengal coast and San Thome on the Madras coast and enjoyed good trade benefits.
3. How did the British establish their trading centres in India?
(i) In 1600, Elizabeth, the Queen of England granted a charter to the governor and company of Merchants of London to trade with East Indies.
(ii) The Company was headed by a Governor and a court of 24 directors.
(iii) Captain Hawkins visited Jahangir’s court and secured permission to raise a settlement at Surat which was cancelled later.
(iv) In 1612, the English Captain Thomas Best, inflicted a severe defeat over the Portuguese in a naval battle near Surat.
(v) The Mughal Emperor Jahangir permitted the English to establish their factory in 1613 at Surat, which became the headquarters of the English in western India.
(vi) Captain Nicholas Downton won another decisive victory over the Portuguese in 1614.
(vii) This enhanced the British prestige at the Mughal court.
(viii) In 1615, Sir Thomas Roe was sent to Jahangir’s court by King James I of England, who succeeded in concluding a commercial treaty with the emperor.
(ix) Before the departure of Sir Thomas Roe, the English had established their trading centres at Surat, Agra, Ahmedabad and Broach.
VIII Map skill
1. On the river map of India, mark the following trading centres of the Europeans.
1. How did the fall of Constantinople affect the European nations?
(i) The fall of Constantinople was the end of an era for Europe as it severely hurt traders in the European region.
(ii) The land route between India and Europe was closed. The Turks penetrated into North Africa and the Balkan Peninsula.
(iii) It became imperative on the part of the European nations to discover new sea routes to the East.
X Student Activity
1. Prepare a chart on the kinds of sources of Modern India.
Answer: Kinds of Sources of Mordern India.
Hints: Artifacts from Archeological sites coins, monuments, inscriptions, travelogues and autobiographies are primary sources of information for modern history, it also includes government reports, letter, photographs map diaries, news papers and films.