Since the Portuguese were eliminated by the Dutch and the later extinguished by the English, the French were left to face the English for control over trade and territory. The French neglected trade and entangled themselves in wars with Indian and other European powers. The three “Carnatic wars” ruined the French and rejuvenated the English to embark on a systematic territorial expansion. The comparative success of the British over the Portuguese, the Dutch, the Danish, and the French was largely due to their commercial competitiveness, spirit of supreme sacrifice, government support, naval superiority, national character and their ascendency in Europe.
* Ananda Rangam is a name to conjure with in the annals of Tamil history.
* The Madras Record Office, known as Tamil Nadu Archives (TNA) is located in Chennai.
* Prince Henry of Portugal, is commonly known as the “Navigator”.
* The “Blue Water Policy” was followed by Almeida.
* The Mughal Emperor Jahangir permitted the English East India Company to establish their factory in 1613 at Surat.
* French East India Company was formed in 1664 by Colbert.
* Pondicherry became the most important and prosperous French settlement in India.
1. Missionaries : religious missions
2. Pamphlets: a small booklet
3. Archives : the place where historical documents and records are kept
4. Manuscripts: handwritten books or documents
5. Repository: a person or thing regarded as a store of information
6. Voyage: a long journey especially by ship
7. Monopoly: exclusive control or possession of something
8. Navigator: in earlier times, a person who explored by ship
1. Bipan Chandra - History of Modern India, Orient Blackswan Private Limited 2018
2. Sumit Sarkar, Modern India 1885-1947, Laxmi Publications; Reprint edition (2008)
3. Ishita Banerjee-Dube - A History of Modern India, Cambridge University Press 2014
Advent of the Europeans
Through this activity you will visualize theSources of Indian History
• Open the Browser and type the URL given below (or) Scan the QR Code.
• Click on Timeline, go to left side menu and Select any one (Ex. Paintings)
• Drag the Time line bar to appropriate period (Ex.1500-1600 A.D)