(i) Municipal capacities:
With the increasing volume of waste generation, collection of wastes gets more
attention than disposal. Furthermore, in India, only a few
municipalities seem to have
the required experience
or capacity for controlled disposal.
Some municipalities may have
identified disposal sites
but still only few may actively
manage them. In some places, contracting
out waste disposal
is seen as a solution. But, municipalities are not equipped to
deal with the problems associated with it, such as
issues of privatisation and monitoring of the contract.
(ii) Political commitment: SWM
is more than
a technical issue,
as any successful programme needs
effective political and governmental support. This is rarely a priority of
government authorities, unless there is a strong and active public interest as
well as international interventions.
(iii) Finance and cost
of a sanitary
landfill site represents a major
investment and it generally receives less priority over other resource demands.
And, even when establishment
costs are secured for a disposal site, recurrent costs to maintain
it always pose problems.
Technical guidelines: Standards
established for waste
disposal in one country need not necessarily be appropriate for another,
due to reasons such as climatic conditions, resources availability,
institutional infrastructure, socio-
cultural values, etc. In the absence of adequate data and/or the means of collecting/acquiring it,
officials often struggle to plan a
safe and economically viable disposal
(v) Institutional role
and responsibility: A disposal
site may be located outside the
boundary of a
town and may
serve more than one town. This necessitates the co- ordination of
all authorities concerned,
and the roles and
responsibilities of different
departments need to be clearly defined and accepted by all concerned.
The accessibility of a disposal site, especially its distance from town, is an
important factor in
site selection, especially
when staff and
public do not
have a strong incentive to use it, when compared to
indiscriminate dumping. Site selection
is perhaps the most difficult stage in the development
of suitable disposal option.