PRINCIPAL BRANCHES OF BIOLOGY
Biology has been divided into Botany and Zoology on the basis of nature of living beings. Inspite of this, now-a-days extensive research has been done on Microorganism. They influence human life in various ways. So for discussion about them a new branch is made. This is known as Microbiology.
Considering the subjects of living bodies on which discussion is made the whole range of Biology is divided into the following main branches.
1. Morphology: This branch deals with both the external and internalstructures of organism. The subject concerning internal . structures is also known as Anatomy.
2. Cytology: Each living organism consists of one or more cells. Structuresand functions of cells are treated in this branch of Biology.
3. Histology: In this branch discussion is made on structure, location andfunction of different tissues.
4. Physiology: This branch includes all the activities of living things e.ggrowth respiration, excretion, photosynthesis and other biological activities.
5. Taxonomy: In this branch discussion is made on identificationnomenclature, and classification of plants and animals into groups and subgroups.
6. Genetics: How different characters are inherited from parents to offsprings,and how the processes can be controlled and improved etc. are brought under study and research in this branch.
7. Ecology: This branch considers the effects of environment on livingorganisms or living communities and also interaction between them.
8. Evolution: This branch deals with the origin and successive transformationsof living organisms.
The groups discussed above are the basic branches of Biology. Scientists gradually started to utilize the knowledge of these branches for human welfare, and as a result applied branches of Biology were created. Agriculture,Medical science, Breeding etc. are some of the important applied branches ofBiology. Applied Biology also includes Forestry and Horticulture, Fishery,Pest Control. Animal Husbandry etc.
There are numerous varieties of plants and animals on earth. Generally similar plants or animals are arranged in particular groups. Some special branches of Biology have been created on the basis of different types of living things are under discussion and research: for example. Phycology includes only members of algae; fungi are treated in Mycology; Virology deals with viruses only; bacteria are considered in Bacteriology; Helminthology is based on study of worms only; insects are discussed in Entomology.
Each of the above mentioned divisions has been divided into subdivisions or branches. It has been mentioned earlier that research in Biological fields has greatly extended now-a-days.