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Chapter: Biology Practicals: Collecting Biology Specimens

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Kingdom Plantae - Collecting Biology Specimens

1. Division Bryophyta 2. Division Filicinophyta 3. Division Coniferophyta 4. Division Angiospermophyta

Kingdom Plantae

Organisms in Kingdom Plantae are eukaryotic. Kingdom Plantae is very large and contains many plants. Although organisms in this group look very different, they all get their nutrition from a process called photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is a way to manufacture food from simple materials with the help of the sun. The following are features of Kingdom Plantae:

1.           In all plants, the cell walls are made up of cellulose.

2.           They demonstrate autotrophic nutrition { they manufacture their own food through photosynthesis.

3.           They have chlorophyll.

4.           They are multicellular and the plant body is separated into tissues, organs, and systems.

There are 4 major divisions in Kingdom plantae. These are Division Bryophyta, Filiciniophyta, Coniferophyta, and Angiospermophyta.


Division Bryophyta

Mosses and Liverworts

 

Bryophyta are mosses and liverworts. They live on the land, but can only grow in wet places because they have no way to carry water. They also need water to reproduce.

 

These are the features of Division Bryophyta:

1.           They have no true roots, stems, or leaves.

2.           They have no vascular tissue.

3.           They reproduce by using spores.

Collection

In dry places, moss should be collected during the rainy season. Moss and liverwort can be found on rocks or trees in moist climates or in rocky river-banks.

Preservation

Once moss or liverwort has been collected, it can be kept for several days on a rock placed in a container with water.


Division Filicinophyta

Ferns

 

Division Filicinophyta are ferns. Ferns grow in moist, shady environments like ground beds of forests.

 

The following are the features of Division Filicinophyta:

1.           They have true roots, stems, and leaves.

2.           They have vascular tissue (xylem and phloem).

3.           The leaves make sori which will later produce spores so the fern can reproduce.

4.           The leaves are called fronds.

5.           They grow in damp and shady places.

Collection

Ferns can be found in shady and humid environments, usually in forests.

Preservation

Ferns can be dried inside a book for future use. Place a fern between two pieces of paper and then place them into a book. Add more weight on top of the book and wait a few weeks. These specimens will be very delicate but will last a long time.


Division Coniferophyta

Pine Trees (Mivinje)

Coniferophyta is a division of Kingdom Plantae. Coniferophyta are cone bearing plants with needle-shaped leaves. The male cones are smaller and produce a yellow powder called pollen. The female cones are larger and have small seed-like structures called ovules.

 

The following are the features of Division Coniferophyta:

1.           They are mostly shrubs and trees with needle shaped leaves.

2.           Their reproductive structures are cones.

3.           The ovule are not enclosed inside an ovary wall.

4.           The majority are evergreens, which means they keep their leaves all year round.

Collection

Coniferophyta can be found in cooler, higher climates like Mbeya, Iringa, and Lushoto. Choose a branch that includes both needle shaped leaves and a cone.

Preservation

Coniferophyta can be dried in the sun and stored in a dry place for future use.


Division Angiospermophyta

Flowering Plants (mimea itoayo maua)

 

Division Angiospermophyta consists of all owering plants. The following are the features of Division Angiospermophyta:

1.           Their reproductive structures are  owers.

2.           Ovules are enclosed in an ovary and seeds are enclosed in a fruit.

Division Angiospermophyta can be divided into two classes; Monocotyle-dons and Diocotyledons.

Monocotyledons

Monocotyledon seeds have only one cotyledon. Monocots have a brous root system, leaves with parallel venation, three part oral systems, and vascular bundles which are scattered. Examples of monocotyledons are maize and grasses.

Dicotyledons

Dicotyledons seeds have two cotyledons. They also have a tap root system, leaves with net-like veins, oral parts in four or ves, and vascular bun-dles which form a ring in the stem. Examples of dicotyledons are mangoes, cashews, beans, and okra.

Collection

 

Angiosperms are easily found in your surrounding environment. Monocotyle-dons are organisms like maize plants and grasses. Dicotyledons are organisms like mango trees, cashew nut trees, and okra.

Preservation

Flowers and leaves can be dried in a book. Place the ower or leaf between two sheets of paper and then press these in the centre of a book. Place the book in a safe place and add more books on top. Leave for a few weeks and then remove.

Dissection

Hibiscus owers can be easily dissected using a razor blade to identify the reproductive parts.

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