A transfer is a change in job assignment. It does not involve a change in responsibility and status. A movement of an employee between equivalent positions at periodical intervals is called ―transfer‖.A transfer therefore does not involve a change of responsibility or compensation. Transfers are normally made to place employees in positions where they are 138 likely to be more effective or where they are likely to get greater job satisfaction. Transfers may be either organization-initiated or employee- initiated. An organization may initiate a transfer to place employees in positions where they are likely to be more effective or where they are better able to meet work schedules of the organization. Employee initiated transfers also known as ―personnel transfers‖may be initiated for several reasons. These could range from wanting a change of boss or a change of location or to avoid interpersonal conflicts with their present colleagues or to join their friends and relatives.
Types of Transfers
There are different types of transfers depending on the purpose for which the transfers are made. Judging from the view-point of purpose, there are nine type of transfers.
(g) Punishment or Penal
(h) Request or Personal
General transfers are normally affected during a particular period of the year wherein all employees having completed a given period of service in a post or at a place are involved. Definite rules and regulations are to be followed in affecting such transfers. Such transfers are followed in big organizations, quasi-governmental organizations and government departments.
Production transfers are normally made from one department to another where the need for the employee is more. This type of transfer is made to avoid lay-off of efficient and trained employees by providing them with alternative positions in the same organization. These changes help to stabilise employment in an organization and therefore require centralised control. Although it is called production transfer, similar situations can exist in non- manufacturing enterprises or divisions too where an employee is transferred from one department to another for similar reasons
These are transfers of long-service employees to similar jobs in other departments where they replace or ‗bump‘employees with shorter service. Replacement transfers are affected to replace persons leaving the organization, due to resignations, retirements, dismissal or death. Quite often such transfers are affected to change a new employee who has proved to be ineffective in the organization. Even though the objective of these transfers is to retain the efficient and trained employees in this process some short-service employees may lose their jobs.
Shift transfers are transfers of workers from one shift to another on the same type of work. Workers generally dislike second or third shift as it affects their participation in community life. To minimise this, shift transfers are effected. Shift transfers also help workers to be out of routine fatigue.
Remedial transfers are transfers made to remedy some situation primarily concerned with employee on the job. Remedial transfers provide management with a procedure whereby an unsatisfactory placement can be corrected. Initial placement might be faulty or the type of job might not suit his health in such cases the worker would benefit by transfer to a different kind of work.
The objective of these transfers is to increase the versatility of the employee by shifting him from one job to another. In this way, the employee is provided a varied and broad job experience. This transfer is like a rotation transfers. Versatility transfers, besides resulting in greater satisfaction of the workers through job enlargement, also creates a work force which can be conveniently shifted to other jobs in time of necessity.
(g) Punishment or Penal
This transfer is made as punishments to erring employees. Quite often the employees are transferred from one place be another so that they are made to work in a situation of risks and hazards. Employees are posted to such places as a matter of punishment for the errors and omissions they have committed.
Sometimes, transfer is used as a concealed penalty. A trouble-maker may be transferred to a remote branch where he cannot continue his activities.
(h) Request Transfers
This type of transfer is done on the request of the employee. It is normally done on humanitarian grounds to help the employee to look after his family and personal problems.
(i) Mutual Transfers
When transfers turn out to be mutual between two employees they are refered to as mutual transfers. Usually the organization concedes to request of employees for transfer if another employee is willing to go to the other place.