Interrelationship between plants and animals
Animals rely on plants for their food and shelter. This relationship benefits not only animals but also plants. Such relationship is economically significant.
For example, silkworms feed on mulberry leaves and live of mulberry plants. This relationship between a worm and a plant is economically useful for us in silk production.
Animals, pests, and birds are essential for cross-pollination of plants.
Bright colours of flowers, smell and honey attract insects. As the insects go from one flower to another, they leave the pollen grains from their body. This results in cross-pollination and the formation of vegetables and fruits.
These insect pollinators and birds need to be protected to produce the best yield.
Bees are the best pollinators. They also give us honey.
Plants and algae living in coral reefs are the food for variety of fishes. Fisheries work is done in these areas.
Animals and birds play an important role in spreading seeds of various plants. The digestive enzymes in the digestive system of the birds soften the protective layer of the seeds and make it easier to germinate.
If these natural relationship between animals and plants are affected, it shows its impact on economy too.
Other uses of plants
1. Maintain soil fertility
Plants maintain soil fertility. Their droppings and shedding of leaves, fruits and other parts degrade in the soil to form humus. This humus increases soil fertility. Eg. Plants like blue green algae and bacteria like Pseudomonas are also extensively used to fix nitrogen in the soil for agriculture.
2. Prevent soil erosion
Plants when grown in dense will prevent soil erosion (ie) in times of wind or flood, the fertile top layer of soil is carried away by air or water. This is prevented by plants if grown around.
3. Bio – fuels
Some plants are also grown for the sake of bio - fuels. Plant fuel is less toxic as it does not emit harmful gases and also less expensive. Eg. Jatropha. Even the plant waste is used to generate electricity. eg: Sugar mills
Osteoarthritis is a joint disease affecting joints and knee in old age and any age people. Currently Indian scientists at CDRI (Central Drug Research Institute – Lucknow) have made a nano formulation from the Palak (Pala spinach) to cure this disease..
4. Rubber and Natural plastic
We obtain rubber for tyre, wiring, seats etc from plants. Natural plastics are also produced from plants which are biodegradable. So it does not do harm to our environment.
5. Neem Oil coated Urea
Farmers in India used urea as a fertilizer to increase the agricultural productivity. Indian Scientists made Neem Coated urea which released nitrogen gradualy and helps the plants to absorb maximum nitrogen. It reduces the impact of urea on an environment.