Social infrastructure refers to those structures which are improving the quality of manpower and contribute indirectly towards the growth of an economy. These structures are outside the system of production and distribution. The development of these social structures help in increasing the efficiency and productivity of manpower. For example, schools, colleges, hospitals and other civic amenities. It is a fact that one of the reasons for the low productivity of Indian workers is the lack of development of social infrastructure. The status and developments in the social infrastructure in India are discussed below.
Imparting education on an organized basis dates back to the days of ‘Gurukul’ in India. Since then the Indian education system has flourished and developed with the growing needs of the economy. The Ministry & Human Resource Development (MHRD) in India formulates education policy in India and also undertakes education programs.
Education in India until 1976 was the responsibility of the State governments. It was then brought under concurrent list (both Centre and State). The Centre is represented by the Ministry of Human Resource Development decides the India’s education budget.
The education system in India consists of primarily six levels:
· Nursery Class
· Primary Class
· Secondary Level
· Higher Secondary Level
Education in India follows the 10+2 pattern. For higher education, there are various State run as well as private institutions and universities providing a variety of courses and subjects. The accreditation of the universities is decided under the University Grant Commission Act. The Education Department consists of various schools, colleges and universities imparting education on fair means for all sections of the society. The budget share of the education sector is around 3% of GDP, of this largest proportion goes for school education. However, per pupil expenditure is the lowest for school students.
Health in India is a state government responsibility. The Central Council Of Health and Welfare formulates the various health care projects and health department reform policies. The administration of health industry in India as well as the technical needs of the health sector are the responsibility of the Ministry Of Health And Welfare.
Health care in India has many forms. These are the ayurvedic medicine practice, unani or galenic herbal care, homeopathy, allopathy, yoga, and many more. Each different healthcare form has its own treatment system and practice patterns. The medical practicing in India needs a proper licensing from the Ministry of Health. All medical systems are now under one ministry viz AYUSH.
The health care services in India are mainly the responsibility of the Ministry of Health. State wise, health status is better in Kerala as compared to other States. Compared to other developed countries, India’s health status is not satisfactory. India’s health status is poor compared to Sri Lanka.