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STABILITY AND COMPENSATOR DESIGN
1. Define stability.
A linear relaxed system is said to have BIBIO stability if every bounded input results in a bounded output.
2. What is nyquist contour
The contour that encloses entire right half of S plane is called nyquist contour.
3. State Nyquist stability criterion.
If the Nyquist plot of the open loop transfer function G(s) corresponding to the nyquist contour in the S-plane encircles the critical point –1+j0 in the contour in clockwise direction as many times as the number of right half S-plane poles of G(s),the closed loop system is stable.
4. Define Relative stability
Relative stability is the degree of closeness of the system; it is an indication of strength or degree of stability.
5. What will be the nature of impulse response when the roots of characteristic equation are lying on imaginary axis?
If the root of characteristic equation lies on imaginary axis the nature of impulse response is oscillatory.
6. What is the relationship between Stability and coefficient of characteristic polynomial?
If the coefficient of characteristic polynomial are negative or zero, then some of the roots lie on the negative half of the S-plane. Hence the system is unstable. If the coefficients of the characteristic polynomial are positive and if no coefficient is zero then there is a possibility of the system to be stable provided all the roots are lying on the left half of the S-plane.
7. What is Routh stability criterion?
Routh criterion states that the necessary and sufficient condition for stability is that all of the elements in the first column of the routh array is positive. If this condition is not met, the system is unstable and the number of sign changes in the elements of the first column of routh array corresponds to the number of roots of characteristic equation in the right half of the S-plane.
8. What is limitedly stable system?
For a bounded input signal if the output has constant amplitude oscillations, then the system may be stable or unstable under some limited constraints such a system is called limitedly stable system.
9. In routh array what conclusion you can make when there is a row of all zeros?
All zero rows in the routh array indicate the existence of an even polynomial as a factor of the given characteristic equation. The even polynomial may have roots on imaginary axis.
10. What is a principle of argument?
The principles of arguments states that let F(S) are analytic function and if an arbitrary closed contour in a clockwise direction is chosen in the S-plane so that F(S) is analytic at every point of the contour. Then the corresponding F(S) plane contour mapped in the F(S) plane will encircle the origin N times in the anti clockwise direction, where N is the difference between number of poles and zeros of F(S) that are encircled by the chosen closed contour in the S-plane
11. What are the two segments of Nyquist contour?
i. An finite line segment C1 along the imaginary axis.
ii. An arc C2 of infinite radius.
12. What are root loci?
The path taken by the roots of the open loop transfer function when the loop gain is varied from 0 to infinity are called root loci.
13. What is a dominant pole?
The dominant pole is a pair of complex conjugate pole which decides the transient response of the system. In higher order systems the dominant poles are very close to origin and all other poles of the system are widely separated and so they have less effect on transient response of the system.
14. What are the main significances of root locus?
i. The root locus technique is used for stability analysis.
ii. Using root locus technique the range of values of K, for as stable system can be determined
15. What are break away and break in points?
At break away point the root locus breaks from the real axis to enter into the complex plane. At break in point the root locus enters the real axis from the complex plane. To find the break away or break in points, form a equation for K from the characteristic equation and differentiate the equation of K with respect to s. Then find the roots of the equation dK/dS = 0. The roots of dK/dS = 0 are break away or break in points provided for this value of root the gain K should be positive and real.
16. What are asymptotes? How will you find angle of asymptotes?
Asymptotes are the straight lines which are parallel to root locus going to infinity and meet the root locus at infinity.
Angles of asymptotes = ±180°(2q + 1)/(n-m) q= 0,1,2, …….(n-m)
n-number of poles. m-number of zeros.
17. What is centroid?
The meeting point of the asymptotes with the real axis is called centroid. The centroid is given by
Centroid = (sum of poles – sum of zeros) / (n-m)
n-number of poles.
m-number of zeros.
18. What is magnitude criterion?
The magnitude criterion states that s=sa will be a point on root locus if for that value of S, magnitude of G(S)H(S) is equal to 1.
|G(S)H(S)| = K(product of length of vectors from open loop zeros to the point s=sa)/ (product of length of vectors from open loop poles to the point s=sa) = 1.
19. What is angle criterion?
The angle criterion states that s=sa will be the point on the root locus if for that value of S the argument or phase of G(S)H(S) is equal to an odd multiple of 180°.
(Sum of the angles of vectors from zeros to the point s=sa)- (Sum of the angles of vectors from poles to the point s=sa) = ±180°(2q + 1)
20. How will you find the root locus on real axis?
To find the root loci on real axis, choose the test point on real axis. If the total number of poles and zeros on the real axis to the right of this test point is odd number then the test point lie on the root locus. If it is even then the test point does not lie on the root locus.
21. What is characteristic equation?
The denominator polynomial of C(S)/R(S) is the characteristic equation of the system.
22. How the roots of characteristic are related to stability?
If the root of characteristic equation has positive real part then the impulse response of the system is not bounded. Hence the system will be unstable. If the root has negative real parts then the impulse response is bounded. Hence the system will be stable.
23. What is the necessary condition for stability?
The necessary condition for stability is that all the coefficients of the characteristic polynomial be positive. The necessary and sufficient condition for stability is that all of the elements in the first column of the routh array should be positive.
24. What are the requirements for BIBO Stability?
The requirement of the BIBO stability is that the absolute integral of the impulse response of the system should take only the finite value.
25. What is auxiliary polynomial?
In the construction of routh array a row of all zero indicates the existence of an even polynomial as a factor of given characteristic equation. In an even polynomial the exponents of S are even integers or zero only. This even polynomial factor is called auxiliary polynomial. The coefficients of auxiliary polynomial are given by the elements of the row just above the row of all zeros.
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