CABLE AND SPACE STRUCTURES
1. What are cable structures?
Long span structures subjected to tension and uses suspension cables for supports. Examples of cable structures are suspension bridges, cable stayed roof.
Suspension bridge- cable structure
2. What is the true shape of cable structures?
Cable structures especially the cable of a suspension bridge is in the form of a catenary. Catenary is the shape assumed by astring/cable freely suspended between two points.
3. What is the nature of force in the cables?
Cables of cable structures have only tension and no compression or bending.
4. What is a catenary?
Catenary is the shape taken up by a cable or rope freely suspended between two supports and under its own self weight.
5. Mention the different types of cable structures.
Cable structures are mainly of two types: (a) Cable over a guide pulley (b)Cable over a saddle
6. Briefly explain cable over a guide pulley.
Cable over a guide pulley has the following properties:
· Tension in the suspension cable=Tension in the anchor cable
· The supporting tower will be subjected to vertical pressure and bending due to net horizontal cable tension.
7. Briefly explain cable over saddle.
Cable over saddle has the following properties:
· Horizontal component of tension in the suspension cable=Horizontal component of tension in the anchor cable
· The supporting tower will be subjected to only vertical pressure due to cable tension.
8. What is the degree of indeterminacy of a suspension bridge with two hinged
The two hinged stiffening girder has one degree of indeterminacy.
9. What are the main functions of stiffening girders in suspension bridges?
Stiffening girders have the following functions.
·They help in keeping the cables in shape
·They resist part of shear force and bending moment due to live loads.
10. Differentiate between planetruss and spacetruss.
· All members liein one plane
· All joints are assumed to be hinged.
· This is a three dimensional truss
· All joints are assumed to be ball and socketed.
11. Define tension coefficient of a truss member.
The tension coefficient for a member of a truss is defined as the pull or tension in the member divided by its length, i. e. the force in the member per unit length.
12. Give some examples of beams curved in plan.
Curved beams are found in the following structures.
Beams in a bridge negotiating a curve
· Ring beams supporting a water tank
· Beams supporting cornerlintels
· Beams in ramps
13. What are the forces developed in beams curved in plan?
Beams curved in plan will have the following forces developed in them:
· Bending moments
· Shear forces
· Torsional moments
14. What are the significant features of circular beams on equally spaced supports?
· Slope on either side of any support will be zero.
· Torsional moment on every support will be zero
15. Give the expression for calculating equivalent UDL on a girder.
Equivalent UDL on a girder is given by We:
16. Give the range of central dip of a cable.
The central dip of acablera nges from 1/10 to 1/12 of the span.
17. Give the horizontal and vertical components of a cable structure subjected to UDL.
18. Give the expression for determining the tension T in the cable.
The tension developed in the cable is given by
Where H=horizontal component and V=vertical component.
19. Give the types of significant cable structures
· Suspension bridge s
· Draped cables
· Cable-stayed beams or trusses
· Cable trusses
· Straight tensioned cables
· Bicycle wheel roof
· 3D cable trusses
· Tensegrity structures
· Tensairity structures
20. What are cables made of?
Cables can be of mild steel, high strength steel, stainless steel, or polyest er fibres. Structural cables are made of a series of small strandstwistedor bound together to form a much larger cable. Steel cables are either spiral strand, where circular rodsaretwisted together or locked coil strand, where individual interlocking steel strands form the cable (often with aspiral strand core).
Spiral strand is slightly weaker than locked coil strand. Steel spiral strand cables have a Young's modulus, Eof150 ± 10kN/mm² and come in sizes from 3 to 90 mm diameter. Spiral strand suffers from construction stretch, where the strands compact when the cable is loaded.