1.What are global issues?
The social and environment aspects of engineer's profession and also the international context of engineering is called global issues. The global issues involve engineers as social experimenters.
2.What are the three versions of Relativism?
i . Ethical Relativism ii . Descriptive Relativism iii . Moral Relativism
3. Differentiate between technology transfer and appropriate technology.
The process by which technology is shifted to a novel setting and its subsequent implementation is called technology transfer. Whereas the process by which the suitable technology is properly identified, transferred and implemented in a new set of an environment is called appropriate technology.
4. Give any ten International rights suggested by Donaldson?
· The right to freedom of physical movement.
· The right to ownership of property.
· The right to freedom from torture.
· The right to a fair trial.
· The right to non-discriminatory treatment.
· The right to physical security.
· The right to freedom of speech and association.
· The right to minimal education.
· The right to political participation.
5. What are the reasons for the disaster at Bhopal?
· The tanks used to store Methyl Iso-cyanate were overloaded to a tune of 75%.
· The emergency plant was al so filled with a large amount of chemicals.
· The entire refrigeration unit had been shutdown as a measure to reduce the cost and this led to increase of temperatures to a higher level.
· One of the disappointed workers unscrewed a pressure gauge on a tank and inserted a hosepipe into i t, knowing that i t would cause damage, but not to this extent.
· Scrubber has also been shut down.
· Flare tower was al so not in an operating condition.
· Unfortunately there were no emergency drills or evacuation plants available.
6.What is the important concept of environmental ethics?
The new branch of applied ethics which is associated with the restoration of natural environment in a balanced state by not harming the human society through vast industrialization is called environmental ethics.
7.What are the characteristic features of human-centered environmental ethics?
The conservation of natural resources for the benefit of present and future generations and the strong emphasis on the human awareness on the destruction of nature are the characteristic features of human-centered environmental ethics.
8. What is embezzlement?
The process of committing computer crimes such as stealing or cheating clients and consumers and conspiracy in the fraudulent uses of computer networks is called embezzlement.
9.How engineers justify their involvements in weapons works?
A steady and constant source of income for the livelihood of their families, better job promotional avenues with an enhanced salary and compulsive reservations in mental attitude are the primary factors with which engineers justify and compromise themselves to work defence industries.
10. What are the problems of Defence industry?
a) Problem of waste and huge cost in implementing and maintaining a weapons system.
b) Problem of Technology creep.
c) Problems in maintaining secrecy.
d) Every country allocates large amount of its resources to defence sector [India spent ¼ of i ts resource for defence]
11. What is an ethical climate?
The favourable and workable atmosphere that is essential for the responsible conduct of an engineer is called ethical climate. This ethical climate enables engineers to contribute their maximum best to their corporate companies.
12. What are the special features of an ethical corporate climate?
· Ethical values are widely appreciated by managers and employees.
· A corporate code of ethics is emphasized for using ethical language.
· Moral tone is set up in policies by management by providing suitable guidelines for professional codes of ethics..
· Proper methods and procedures for conflict resolution are suitably evolved.