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Functions and Importance of Capital Market
Capital market has a crucial significance to capital formation. For a speedy economic development adequate capital formation is necessary. The significance of capital market in economic development is explained below:-
1. Savings and Capital Formation
In capital market, various types of securities help to mobilize savings from various sectors of population (Individuals, Corporate, Govt., etc.). The twin features of reasonable return and liquidity in stock exchange are definite incentives to the people to invest in securities. This accelerates the capital formation in the country.
2. Permanent Capital
The existence of a capital market/stock exchange enables companies to raise permanent capital. The investors cannot commit their funds for a permanent period but companies require funds permanently. The stock exchange resolves this dash of interests by offering an opportunity to investors to buy or sell their securities, while permanent capital with the company remains unaffected.
3. Industrial Growth
The stock exchange is a central market through which resources are transferred to the industrial sector of the economy. The existence of such an institution encourages people to invest in productive channels. Thus it stimulates industrial growth and economic development of the country by mobilizing funds for investment in the corporate securities.
4. Ready and Continuous Market
The stock exchange provides a central convenient place where buyers and sellers can easily purchase and sell securities. Easy marketability makes investment in securities more liquid as compared to other assets.
5. Reliable Guide to Performance
The capital market serves as a reliable guide to the performance and financial position of corporate, and thereby promotes efficiency.
6. Proper Channelizationof Funds
The prevailing market price of a security and relative yield are the guiding factors for the people to channelize their funds in a particular company. This ensures effective utilisation of funds in the public interest.
7. Provision of Variety of Services
The financial institutions functioning in the capital market provide a variety of services such as grant of long term and medium term loans to entrepreneurs, provision of underwriting facilities, assistance in promotion of companies, participation in equity capital, giving expert advice etc.
8. Development of Backward Areas
Capital Markets provide funds for projects in backward areas. This facilitates economic development of backward areas. Long term funds are also provided for development projects in backward and rural areas.
9. Foreign Capital
Capital markets makes possible to generate foreign capital. Indian firms are able to generate capital funds from overseas markets by way of bonds and other securities. Government has liberalised Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in the country. This not only brings in foreign capital but also foreign technology which is important for economic development of the country.
10. Easy Liquidity
With the help of secondary market investors can sell off their holdings and convert them into liquid cash. Commercial banks also allow investors to withdraw their deposits, as and when they are in need of funds.
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