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# Friction

1. Types of Friction 2. Factors affecting Friction 3. Advantages of Friction 4. Disadvantages of Friction 5. Increasing and decreasing Friction

Friction

We walk on roads without falling. But, we tend to fall when we walk on wet surfaces. Why? We walk on the roads safely because of the friction between the feet and the road. But, the friction is less when we walk on wet surface and so we tend to fall.

Frictional force or friction arises when two or more bodies in contact move or tend to move, relative to each other. It acts always in the opposite direction of the moving body. This force is produced due to the geometrical dissimilarities of the surface of the bodies, which are in relative motion. Friction can produce the following effects.

* Friction opposes motion.

* It causes wear and tear of the surfaces in contact.

* It produces heat.

1. Types of Friction

Friction can be classified into two basic types: static friction and kinetic friction.

Static friction

The friction experienced by the bodies, which are at rest is called static friction. Eg. All the objects are rigidly placed to be at rest on the earth.

Kinetic friction

Friction existing during the motion of bodies is called kinetic friction. Kinetic friction can be further classified into sliding friction and rolling friction.

When a body slides over the surface of another body, the friction acting between the surfaces in contact is called sliding friction. When a body rolls over another surface, the friction acting between the surfaces in contact is called rolling friction. Rolling friction is less than sliding friction. That is why wheels are provided in vehicles, trolleys, suitcases etc.

2. Factors affecting Friction

Some of the factors which affect friction are given below.

a. Nature of a surface

Moving an object on a rough surface will be difficult, but we can eassily move it on a smooth surface. It is because, friction varies between the surfaces.

b. Weight of the body

It is easy to pedal your cycle without any load on its carrier. With a load placed on its carrier, it is difficult to move it because the weight on the carrier increases the friction between the surface of the tyre and the road.

c. Area of contact

For a given weight, the friction is directly related to the area of contact between the two surfaces. If the area of contact is greater, then, the friction will be greater too.

A road roller has a broad base, so it offers more friction on the road. But, a cycle has the least friction, since the area of contact of the tyre with the surface of the road is less.

3. Advantages of Friction

Friction is necesary for our day to day activities. It is desirable in most of the situations of our daily life.

* We can hold objects in our hand due to friction.

* We can walk on the road because of friction. The friction between footwear and the ground help us to walk without slipping.

* Writing on the paper with a pen is easy due to friction.

* Automobiles can move safely due to friction between the tyres and the road. Brakes can be applied due to frictional resistance on brake shoes.

* We are able to light a matchstick, sew clothes, tie a knot or fix a nail on the wall because of friction.

Though friction makes our life easy, it has some negative effects also. So, it is called as 'necessary evil'.

4. Disadvantages of Friction

* Friction wears out the surfaces rubbing with each other, like screws and gears in machines or soles of shoes.

* An excess amount of effort has to be given to overcome the friction while operating a machine. This leads to wastage of energy.

* Friction produces heat, which causes physical damage to the machines.

5. Increasing and decreasing Friction

a. Area of contact

Friction can be increased by increasing the area of the surfaces in contact. For example, brake shoes in a cycle have to be adjusted so that they are as close as possible to the rim of the wheel, in order to increase the friction.

b. Using lubricants

A substance which reduces the frictional force is called a lubricant. Eg. Grease, coconut oil, graphite, castor oil, etc. The lubricants fill up the gaps in the irregular surfaces between the bodies in contact. This provides a smooth layer thus preventing a direct contact between their rough surfaces.

c. Using ball bearing

Since rolling friction is smaller than sliding friction, sliding is replaced by rolling with the usage of ball bearings. For the same reason, lead shots are used in the bearing of a cycle hub.

Tags : Types, Factors affecting, Advantages, Disadvantages, Increasing and decreasing Friction , 8th Science : Chapter 2 : Force and Pressure
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8th Science : Chapter 2 : Force and Pressure : Friction | Types, Factors affecting, Advantages, Disadvantages, Increasing and decreasing Friction