FACTORS OF BRAND LOYALTY
Lau et al.
(2006) in his article mentioned that there were seven factors that influenced
consumers‘ brand loyalty towards certain spo product quality, price, style,
store environment, promotion and service quality.
Famous brand names can
disseminate product benefits and lead to higher recall of advertised benefits
than non-famous brand names (Keller, 2003). There are many unfamiliar brand
names and alternatives available in the market place. Consumers may prefer to
trust major famous brand names. These prestigious brand names and their images
attract consumers to purchase the brand and bring about repeat purchasing
behaviour and reduce price related switching behaviours (Cadogan and Foster,
2000). Furthermore, bra emotional and self-expressive benefits for
differentiation. This is important for brands which have only minor physical
differences and are consumed in a social setting where the brand can create a
visible image about the consumer itself.
encompasses the features and characteristics of a product or service that bears
on its ability to satisfy stated or
implied needs. In other words, product quality is defined as ―fitness for use‖ or ‗conformance to requirement‖.
Consumers may repeat the purchase of single brands or switch around several
brands due to the tangible quality of the product sold. According to Frings
(2005), the components of product quality of fashion merchandise include size
measurement, cutting or fitting, material, colour, function and the performance
of the merchandise. Fitting is a crucial aspect in garment selection because
some fitted garments such as swimsuits and aerobic wear can ideally enh is
important in product quality because it affects the hand feel, texture and
other performance aspects of the product. Further, consumers relate personally
to colour, and could select or reject a fashion because of colour. If the
colour does not appeal to them or flatter their own colour, they will reject
in sportswear include quick-dry, breathable, waterproof, odour-resistant,
lightweight, and antimicrobial and finally, durability which is the use life of
garments. For instance, some consumers wear their sportswear for heavy work and
some for leisure and sports, as they need a lot of movement, while durability
is an important consideration in purchasing sportswear. Perfectionist or
quality consciousness is defined as an awareness of and desire for high quality
products, and the need to make the best or perfect choice versus buying the
first product or brand available (Sproles and Kendall, 1986). This indicates
that quality characteristics are also related to performance.
According to Cadogan
and Foster (2000), price is probably the most important consideration for the
average consumer. Consumers with high brand loyalty are willing to pay a
premium price for their favoured brand, so, their purchase intention is not
easily affected by price. In addition, customers have a strong belief in the
price and value of their favourite brands so much so that they would compare
and evaluate prices with alternative brands (Evans et al.,
1996; Keller, 2003).
Consumers‘ satisfaction costs and values. If the perceived values of the
product are greater than cost, it is observed that consumers will purchase that
Loyal customers are
willing to pay a premium even if the price has increased because the perceived
risk is very high and they prefer to pay a higher price to avoid the risk of
any change (Yoon and Kim, 2000). Basically, long-term relationships of service
loyalty make loyal customers more price tolerant, since loyalty discourages
customers from making price comparison with other products by shopping around.
Price has increasingly become a focal point in consumers‘entsofoffer
valuejudgmaswell as their overall assessment of the retailer (De Ruyter et
al., 1999). According to Bucklin et al. (1998), price significantly
influences consumer choice and incidence of purchase. He emphasized that
discount pricing makes households switch brands and buy products earlier than
needed. Price is described as the quantity of payment or compensation for
something. It indicates price as an exchange ratio between goods that pay for each
other. Price also communicates to the market the company‘s intended valu its
product or brand. Price consciousness is defined as finding the best value,
buying at sale prices or the lowest price choice (Sproles and Kendall, 1986).
Additionally, consumers generally evaluated market price against an internal
reference price, before they decide on the attractiveness of the retail price.
Style is visual
appearance, which includes line, silhouette and details affecting consumer
perception towards a brand (Frings, 2005). According to Abraham and Littrell
(1995), a composite list of apparel attributes has been generated and one of
the conceptual categories is style. Consumers‘ judgment depends on the c
judgment will be conditioned by their opinion of what is currently fashionable.
Brands that supply stylish sportswear attract loyal consumers who are fashion
conscious. Fashion leaders or followers usually purchase or continue to
repeatedly purchase their fashion garments in stores that are highly
fashionable. They gain satisfaction from wearing the latest fashion and style
which also satisfies their ego.
A research conducted by
Duff (1999) inve sportswear, and the results showed that sportswear shoppers
were becoming more fashion conscious and were demanding products with more
style; furthermore, consumers have a tendency to wear different attires for
different occasions. According to Sproles and Kendall (1986), fashion
consciousness is generally defined as an awareness of new styles, changing
fashions, and attractive styling, as well as the desire to buy something
exciting and trendy.
Omar (1999) emphasised
that the store environment was the single most important factor in retail
marketing success and store longevity. Positive attributes of the store, which
include store location, store layout, and in-store stimuli, affect brand
loyalty to some extent. Store location and number of outlets are crucial in
altering consumer shopping and purchasing patterns. If consumers find the store
to be highly accessible during their shopping trip and are
satisfied with the
store‘s assortment and ser (Evans et al., 1996). Thus, a store‘sfactors
thatatmospherecouldinfluence is consumer‘s decision making.
The stimuli in the
store, such as the characteristic of other shoppers and salespeople, store
layout, noises, smells, temperature, shelf space and displays, sign, colours,
and merchandise, affect consumers and serve as elements of apparel attributes
(Abraham and Littrell, 1995), which may in turn, affect consumer decision
making and satisfaction with the brand (Evans et al., 1996). On the
other hand, background music played in the stores affects attitudes and
behaviour (Milliman, 1982). The slow-beat musical selection leads to higher
sales volume as consumers spend more time and money in a conducive environment.
There are many advantages to retailers having loyal customers. As stated by
Huddleston et al. (2004), customer loyalty could yield a favourable
operating cost advantage for retailers. Furthermore, they stressed that
obtaining new customers cost five to six times as much as retaining current
customers. Loyal customers can increase their purchase spending, they are low
cost for retailers as compared to obtaining new customers; they accept price
premiums and they have customer longevity. Research conducted by Lin and Chang
(2003) showed that the channel convenience of the brands had significant
influence on buying behaviour. This means that the accessibility to this
product/brand in the store is important when purchasing low involvement
products. Consumers will not go to another store just to find the brand.
Instead, they will stay put and choose another brand.
Promotion is a
marketing mix component which is a kind of communication with consumers.
Promotion includes the use of advertising, sales promotions, personal selling
and publicity. Advertising is a non-personal presentation of information in
mass media about a product, brand, company or store. It greatly towards
products and brands, and in turn, influences their purchase behaviours (Evans et
al., 1996). This shows that promotion, especially through advertising, can
help establish ideas or perceptions in the consumers‘ minds as well a According
to Rowley (1998), promotion is an important element of a firm‘s marketing
Promotion is used to
communicate with customers with respect to product offerings, and it is also a
way to encourage purchase or sales of a product or service. Sales promotion
tools are used by most organisations in support of advertising and public
relations activities, and they are targeted toward consumers as final users.
She also states that promotion has a key role in determining profitability and
market success and is one of the key elements of the marketing mix which
includes advertising; direct marketing; sales promotion; public relations and
publicity; personal selling and sponsorship.
A common definition of
service quality is that the service should correspond to the customers‘
expectations and satisfyoos,1990). Servicetheir ne quality is a kind of
personal selling, and involves direct interactions between salespeople and potential
buyers. Consumers like to shop at specific stores because they like the
services provided and are assured of certain service privileges. The impact of
salespeople-consumer relationships will generally result in longterm
orientation of consumers towards the store or brand. Trust in salespeople
appears to relate and results in the consumer being totally satisfied with the
stores in the end. Additionally, personalisation (i.e. reliability,
responsiveness, personalization and tangibles) significantly influence
consumers‘ experience andrand evaluatioloyalty of consumers (To and Leung,
2001). Gronroos (1990) noted that the quality of a service as perceived by
customers had three dimensions: functional (or process) dimension, technical
(or outcome) dimension, and image. Furthermore, Richard and Allaway (1993)
argued that utilizing only functional quality attributes to explai
misspecification of service quality and had low predictive validity.