I. Choose the Correct answer
1. Who was the teacher and guardian of Shivaji?
a) Dadaji Kondadev
b) Kavi Kalash
Answer: a) Dadaji Kondadev
2. How was the Prime Minister of Maratha kings known?
Answer: b) Peshwa
3. Name the family priest of Shambhuji who influenced him in his day-to-day administration.
b) Anaji Datta
c) Dadaji Kondadev
d) Kavi Kalash
Answer: d) Kavi Kalash
4. What was the backbone of Shivaji’s army in the beginning?
Answer: c) Infantry
5. Who proclaimed wars and freed Malwa and Gujarat from Mughal domination?
a) Balaji Vishwanath
c) Balaji Bajirao
Answer: b) Bajirao
II. Fill in the Blanks
1 .The spread of the Bhakti Movement movement in Maharashtra helped the Maratha people develop consciousness and oneness.
2. Kamavisdar was the key official of revenue administration of Peshwa.
3. The imperial moment of the Marathas sadly ended at Panipat in 1761.
4. Sumant was the foreign minister in the Ashtapradhan.
5. Shambhuji succeeded Shivaji after a succession tussle with Anaji Datto.
III. Match the following
1. Shaji Bhonsle - Mother of Shivaji
2. Shambhuji - General of Bijapur
3. Shahu - Shivaji’s father
4. Jijabai - Son of Shivaji
5. Afzal khan - Shivaji’s grandson
1. Shaji Bhonsle - Shivaji’s father
2. Shambhuji - Son of Shivaji
3. Shahu - Shivaji’s grandson
4. Jijabai - Mother of Shivaji
5. Afzal khan - General of Bijapur
VI.True or False
1. The rocky and mountainous terrain gave protection to the Marathas from invaders. [True]
2. Hymns composed in Sanskrit by the Bhakti saints were sung by people of all castes and classes. [False]
3. Shiaji captured Puranthar from the Mughals. [True]
4. Deshmukhs held sway over rural regions and their control was over between twenty and hundred villages. [True]
5. Abdali invaded ten times before finally marching on Delhi. [False]
V. Consider the following statements. Tick (✓) the appropriate answer:
1. Assertion (A): Soldiers were to live in forts and towns far away from home
Reason (R): Maratha soldiers were not permitted to retire from battle fields each year for the purpose of cultivating their land.
a. R is correct explanation of A
b. R is not the correct explanation of A
c. A is Wrong and R is correct
d. A and R are wrong
I and II are false
Answer: a. R is correct explanation of A
2. Statement I : Judging from the ledgers of correspondence and account books, Peshwas were keen on accurate record-keeping.
Statement II: Artillery decided the battle at Panipat in 1761.
a. I is correct
b. II is correct
c. I and II are correct
d. I and II are false
Answer: c. I and II are correct
3. Find the odd one out
Shahji, Shivaji, Shambhuji, Shahu, Rahuji Bhonsle.
Answer: Rahuji Bhonsle
4. Find out the wrong pair
1. Gaikwad Baroda
2. Peshwa Nagpur
3. Holkar Indore
4. Shinde Gwalior
Answer: 2. Peshwa Nagpur
5. Arrange the events in chronological order
I. Shivaji became totally independent after the death of his guardian Kondadev.
II. Emperor Shahu died when Balaji Bajirao was Peshwa.
III. Shivaji resumed his military raids after his father’s death and conquered Javali.
VI. Balaji Vishwanath became Peshwa.
1. Shivaji became totally independent after the death of his guardian Kondadev.
2. Shivaji resumed his military raids after his father’s death and conquered Javali.
3. Balaji Vishwanath became Peshwa.
4. Emperor Shahu died when Balaji Bajirao was Peshwa.
VI. Answer in one or two sentences
1. The impact of Bhakti movement on Marathas.
The spread of the Bhakti movement in Maharashtra promoted a feeling of unity, especially in terms of social equality, among the Marathas. Religious leaders Eknath, Tukaram and Ramdas were the noted Bhakti saints. Tukaram and Ramdas had considerable influence on the life of Shivaji.
2. Chauth and Sardeshmukhi
Sivaji protected the people from loot and plunder for which they were required to pay chauth (one-fourth of the revenue as protection money) and sardeshmukhi (an extra one-tenth, as the chieftain's due).
3. Role of Kamavisdar in Maratha revenue administration.
The revenue administration of Peshwas was headed by a key official called the kamavisdar. He was appointed by the Peshwa. He was empowered to maintain a small body of soldiers to police the administrative area, fromwhere tribute or tax had to be collected.
4. Execution of Shambhuji by Mughal Army.
Shambhuji succeeded Shivaji. Aurangzeb’s rebel son Akbar arrived in Maharashtra and took shelter in Shambhuji’s court. So Aurangzeb himself arrived in the Deccan in 1681. Shambhuji was captured by the Mughals and, after torture, put to death.
5. Battle of Panipat fought in 1761.
The imperial moment of the Marathas sadly ended at Panipat near Delhi in 1761. The Marathas’ attempt to extend their domain beyond Punjab was checked by the king of the Afghans, Ahmad Shah Abdali. The mobile artillery of the Afghans proved lethal against both Maratha cavalry and infantry. The Maratha army was shattered.
VII. Answer the following.
1. Examine the essential features of Maratha administration under Shivaji.
Shivaji’s political system consisted of three circles. At the centre was the swaraj. Shivaj would not allow the people to be harassed in any way. In the second circle, Shivaji claimed suzerainty, He protected the people from loot and plunder for which they were required to pay chauth (one- fourth of the revenue as protection money) and sardeshmukhi (an extra one-tenth, as the chieftain’s due). In the third circle, Shivaji’s only objective was plunder. Deshmukhs held sway over rural regions and their control was over between twenty and hundred villages. Each village had a powerful headman (patil), who was assisted by a village accountant of a keeper of records (kulkarni).
Army : Shivaji gave utmost attention to his army and training of its personnel. In the beginning, the backbone of his army was the infantry. In the plains, his cavalry force grew in size and importance. Every soldier was selected personally by Shivaji. Retired captains holding a high reputation were put in charge of guarding the forts.
Ashtapradhan : Shivaji designated eight ministers as the Ashtapradhan, each holding an important portfolio. Peshwa was the equivalent of a modern prime minister in the Maratha Empire. Originally, they were subordinates to the Chhatrapati. Shivaji was influenced by the Mughal revenue system. The assessments were made on the actual yield, with three-fifths left to the cultivator and two-fifths taken by the government. In judicial administration, civil cases continued to be decided by the panchayat, the village council, while criminal law was based on the shastras, the Hindu law books.
Responsibilities of the Ashtapradhan :
Pantpradhan / Peshwa : Prime Minister
Amatya / Mazumdar : Finance Minister
Shurunavis / Sacheev : Secretary
Waqia-Navis : Interior Minister
Sar-i-Naubat / Senapati : Commander-in-Chief
Sumant / Dubeer : Foreign Minister
Nyayadhish : Chief Justice
Panditrao : High Priest
1. Compare the revenue administration of the Peshwas with that of Shivaji.
The revenue administration of Peshwas was headed by a key official called the kamavisdar. He was appointed by the Peshwa. He was empowered to maintain a small body of soldiers to police the administrative area, from where tribute or tax had to be collected. A small staff of clerks and servants were employed to maintain the revenue records. These records were randomly checked by the office of the Peshwa. The contracts for revenue collection was auctioned annually after the revenue for a particular place was estimated by the Peshwa’s civil servants, based on previous years’ yields. A prospective tax or revenue collector who won the contract was expected to have a reputation for wealth and probity. He was required to pay a portion of the whole of the anticipated revenue - one-third to one half - either out of his own wealth or from the money borrowed from bankers. Judging from the ledgers of correspondence and account books, it is evident that the Peshwas were keen on accurate record keeping.
Shivaji was influenced by the Mughal revenue system. The assessments were made on the actual yield, with three-fifths left to the cultivator and two-fifths taken by the government. He protected the people from loot and plunder for which they were required to pay chauth (one-fourth of the revenue as protection money) and sardeshmukhi (an extra one-tenth, as the chieftain’s due). Each village had a powerful headman (patil), who was assisted by a village accountant of a keeper of records (kulkami). The Finance Minister was called Amatya or Mazumdar.
1. Maratha Empire with prominent cities and forts.
X. Student Activity
1. Match the responsibilities of Ashtapradhan
Amatya - Foreign Minister
Waqia – Navis - Commander-in-Chief
Sumant - Finance Minister
Senapati - Interior Minister
Amatya - Finance minister
Waqia – Navis - Interior minister
Sumant - Foreign minister
Senapati - Commander-in-chief
2. Group Activity
Collect information about the Thanjavur Marathas with special reference to their contribution to education, art and architecture.