Emergence of New Kingdoms in South India: Later Cholas and Pandyas
I. Choose the Correct answer
1. Who revived the later Chola dynasty?
b. Rajaraja I
c. Rajendra I
Answer: a. Vijayalaya
2. Who among the following Pandya rulers is known for ending the Kalabhra rule?
c. Kun Pandyan
Answer: a. Kadunkon
3. Which of the following was the lowest unit of Chola administration?
Answer: d. Ur
4. Who was the last ruler Vijayalaya line of Chola dyanasty?
d. Rajaraja II
Answer: c. AthiRajendra
5. An example of Chola architecture can be seen at_______.
Answer: d. Thanjavur
6. To which of the following, Marco Polo went in the last decade of 13th century in India?
a. Chola mandalam
b. Pandya country
c. Kongu region
Answer: b. Pandya country
II. Fill in the blanks
1. Rajaraja I built the famous Brihadeshwara Temple at Thanjavur.
2. Rajendra I established a Vedic college at Ennayiram.
3. Jatila Parantaka Nedunjadayan was the donor of Velvikudi copper plates.
4. The royal sectretariat of Pandya kingdom was known as eluttu mandapam.
III. Match the Following
A - B
1. Madurai - Inland traders
2. Gangaikonda Cholapuram - Maritime traders
3. .Anju- Vannattar - Capital of Cholas
4. Mani- gramattar - Capital of Pandyas
Answer: 1) Capital of Pandyas 2) Capital of Cholas 3) Maritime traders 4) Inland traders
1. Madurai : Capital of Pandyas
2. Gangaikonda Cholapuram : Capital of Cholas
3. Anju-Vannattar : Maritime traders
4. Mani-gramniattar : Inland traders
IV. True or False
1. A Muslim state subordinate to Delhi Sultan was in Madurai. - True
2. Koodal – nagar Kavalan was the title of a Pandya king. - True
3. Chola kingdom was situated in Vaigai delta. – False
Chola kingdom was situated in Kaveri delta.
4. Kulothunga I belonged to Chalukya – Chola dynasty. - True
5. The elder son of the Chola king was called Yuvaraja. - True
V. Consider the following statements. Tick ( √ ) the appropriate answer.
1. Which of the following statements about Later Cholas are correct?
1.They had a system of Local self government.
2.They maintained a strong navy.
3.They were the followers of Buddhism.
4.They built big temples.
a.1,2 and 3
b.2,3 and 4
c.1,2 and 4
d.1,3 and 4
Answer : c. 1, 2 and 4
2. Which of the following statements are true with regard to Rajendra Chola?
1. He assumed the title Gangaikonda Chola.
2. He conquered Southern Sumatra.
3. He is credited with consolidating the Chola power.
4. His naval power enabled him to conquer Srivijaya.
a. 1 and 2
b. 3 and 4
c. 1,2 and 4
d. All the above
Answer: d. All the above
3. Assertion:- The Yuvarajas were appointed Governors in the provinces.
Reason:- This was done for their training in administration.
a. R is the correct explanation of A.
b. R is not the correct explanation of A.
c. A is wrong and R is correct.
d. A and R are wrong.
Answer: a. R is the correct explanation of A.
4. Arrange the following administration divisions in descending order.
Answer : Mandalam > Nadu > Kurram > Ur
5. Arrange the events in chronological order.
1. Maravarman appointed Virapandyan as co – regent.
2. Civil war broke out.
3. A Muslim State was established in Madurai.
4. MaravarmanKulasekaran had two sons – Virapandyan and Sundrapandyan
5. SundraPandyan sought help from Ala – ud-din Khalji.
6. Malik Kafur invaded Madurai.
1. Maravarman Kulasekaran had two sons - Virapandyan and Sundrapandyan
2. Maravarman appointed Virapandyan as co - regent.
3. Civil war broke out.
4. Sundra Pandyan sought help from Ala -ud-din Khalji.
5. Malik Kafur invaded Madurai.
6. A Muslim State was established in Madurai.
6. Find out
Brahmadeya : Gifted tax-free lands to Brahmins
Devadana : Lands granted to temples
Pallichchandam : Lands granted to Jain Institutions
Vellanvagai : Lands granted to Vellalars
VI. Answer in one or two sentences
1. What were the items exported during the later Chola period?
The items exported from here were sandalwood, ebony, condiments, precious gems, pepper, oil, paddy.
2. What was called Chatur-vedi-mangalam?
Kings and local chiefs created Brahmin settlements called Mangalam or Chatur-vedi-mangalam with irrigation facilities.
3. Write about Kanikadan
The revenue of the Chola state came mainly from the land. The land tax was known as Kanikadan.
VII. Answer the following
1. Highlight any five aspects of Cholas’ legacy.
The central administration was in the hands of king. As the head of the state, the king enjoyed enormous powers. The king's orders were written down in palm leaves by his officials or inscribed on the temple walls. The kingship was hereditary in nature. The ruler selected his eldest son as the heir apparent. He was known as Yuvaraja. The Yuvarajas were appointed as Governors in the provinces mainly for administrative training.
The Chola rulers established a well-organised system of administration. The empire, for administrative convenience, was divided into provinces or mandalams. Each mandalam was sub- divided into naadus, Within each naadu, there were many kurrams (groups of villages). The lowest unit was the gramam (village).
1. Chola kings were great patrons of learning: Support the statement with details.
Chola kings were great patrons of learning. Rajendra I established a Vedic college at Ennayiram (now in Villupuram District). There were 340 students learning the Vedas, grammar and Upanishads under 14 teachers. This example was later followed by his successors and as a result two more such colleges had been founded, at Tirubuvanai near present-day Puducherry and Tirumukkoodal in present-day Chengalpattu district, in 1048 and 1067 respectively. The great literary works Periyapuranam and Kamba Ramayanam belong to this period.
IX. Students activity
Who am I?
1. I was responsible for Malik Kafur invasion.
2. I built 16-mile embankment-lake in Gangaikonda Cholapuram.
3. I am a water supply channel.
4. I codified Thirumurai.
5. I was a great port. Marco Polo visited me twice.
Who is he?
A famous traveller from Venice
Why is this person so important?
Marco Polo is a foreigner.
So his record is an important historical evidence.
What are his observations about Pandya Kingdoms?
Pandya kingdom is the richest and most splendid province in the world. It produced most of the gems and pearls in the world.
Why do you think his observations are so important?
His observations are important as historical record of foreign evidence.
X. Answer Grid
1. Name the two literary works of Chola period. Ans: Periya Puranam, Kamba Ramayanam
2. Which port is associated with pearl fishery? Ans: Korkai
3. What do kasu, kalanchu and pon refer to? Ans: Gold coins of Pandyas
4. In which district is Kayal -Pattinam located? Ans: Thoothukudi
5. Who was the Pandya king, defeated by Parantaka I? Ans: Rajasimha II
6. Where is the famous Meenakshi temple located? Ans: Madurai.
XI. Field trip.
Visit any one temple built during Chola or Pandya period and see its magnificence.