I. Answer in brief
1. Define Disaster
'A disaster is a serious disruption of the functioning of a society involving human and material loss.
2. What are the two types of disasters? Give examples.
Disaster is broadly classified into natural and man-made disasters.
Thunder & lightning
Destruction of buildings
Accidents in industries
Accidents in transport
3. Write a short note on ‘Thunder and lightning’
Thunder is a series of sudden electrical discharge resulting from atmospheric conditions. This discharge results in sudden flashes of light and trembling sound waves which are commonly known as thunder and lightning.
4. Chennai, Cuddalore and Cauvery delta are frequently affected by floods. Give reason.
The following are the causes of floods.
• Torrential rainfall
• Encroachment of the rivers bank
• Excessive rainfalls in river catchment areas.
• Inefficient engineering design in the construction of embankments, dams, and canals.
5. Differentiate: Landslide – Avalanche
Landslide : The movement of a mass of rocks, debris, soil etc., down slope is called landslide.
Avalanches : A large amount of ice, snow and rock falling quickly down the side of a mountain is called an Avalanches.
II. Answer in a paragraph
1. What is flood? Explain the do’s and don’ts during floods.
Floods are high stream flows which overlap natural on artificial banks of a river or a stream. They are markedly higher flow of water than the usual flow.
• To find out the settlement area whether it is to be affected by flood or not.
• Keeping radio, torch and additional batteries, storing drinking water, dry foods items, salt and sugar. Safeguarding materials like kerosene, candle, match box, clothes and valuable things.
• Keeping umbrella and bamboo poles.
• Keeping first aid box and strong ropes to bind things.
• To dig canals from the farm land, to drain the excessive water Keeping sand bags etc.,
• Try to connect electricity once it is cut.
• Operate vehicles.
• Swim against floods.
• Avoid going on excursions.
• Neglect flood warning messages.
Make a flood plan
On a piece of paper, draw your village/town map roughly. Locate your home,school and playground on the map. Then draw the rivers/stream/lake and road, located nearest to your village/ town. Answer the questions listed below.
1. Which areas and roads would be mostly affected by flood?
2. Can you find out evacuation route?
3. If you live in a flood-prone area, what are the precautionary measures you have to take during heavy rains?
4. What are things that you should have in your ‘Go- Kit’ / ‘Drive -away kit’?
5. Make a list of emergency numbers. (‘Go-Kit’ - A kit prepared by and for an individual or group who expects to develop it in alternative locations during emergency)