I Fill in the blanks.
1. The line of latitude which is known as the Great Circle is Equator.
2. The imaginary lines drawn horizontally on Earth from the West to East are called Latitude.
3. The 90° lines of latitude on the Earth are called Poles.
4. The Prime Meridian is also called Greenwich Meridian.
5. The world is divided into 24 time zones.
II Choose the best answer
1. The shape of the Earth is _____________
Answer: c) Geoid
2. The North Pole is
a) 90° N Latitude
b) 90° S latitude
c) 90° W Longitude
d) 90° E longitude
Answer: a) 90° N Latitude
3. The area found between 0° and 180° E lines of longitude is called
a) Southern Hemisphere
b) Western Hemisphere
c) Northern Hemisphere
d) Eastern Hemisphere
Answer: d) Eastern Hemisphere
4. The 23 ½° N line of latitude is called_____________
a) Tropic of Capricorn
b) Tropic of Cancer
c) Arctic Circle
d) Antarctic Circle
Answer: b) Tropic of Cancer
5. 180° line of longitude is
b) International Date Line
c) Prime Meridian
d) North Pole
Answer: b) International Date Line
6. The Sun is found overhead the Greenwich Meridian at
a) 12 midnight
b) 12 noon
c) 1 p.m.
d) 11 a.m.
Answer: b) 12 noon
7. A day has _____________.
a) 1240 minutes
b) 1340 minutes
c) 1440 minutes
d) 1140 minutes
Answer: c) 1440 minutes
8. Which of the following lines of longitude is considered for the Indian Standard Time?
a) 82½° E
b) 82½° W
c) 81½° E
d) 81½° W
Answer: a) 82 ½ ° E
9. The total number of lines of latitude are
Answer: c) 181
10. The total number of lines of longitude are
Answer: c) 360
III Circle the odd one
1. North Pole, South Pole, Equator, International Date Line.
North Pole, South Pole, Equator, (international Date Line)
2. Tropic of Capricorn, Tropic of Cancer, Equator, Prime Meridian.
Tropic of Capricorn, Tropic of Cancer, Equator, (Prime Meridian.)
3. Torrid Zone, Time Zone, Temperate Zone, Frigid Zone
Torrid Zone, (Time Zone,) Temperate Zone, Frigid Zone
4. Royal Astronomical observatory, Prime Meridian, Greenwich Meridian, International Date Line.
(Royal Astronomical observatory,) Prime Meridian, Greenwich Meridian, International Date Line.
5. 10° North, 20° South, 30° North, 40° West
10° North, 20° South, 30° North, (40° West )
IV Match the following.
A / B
1. 0° line of latitude - Pole
2. 0° line of longitude- International Date Line
3. 180° line of longitude- Greenwich
4. 90° line of latitude- Equator
0° line of latitude - Equator
0° line of longitude - Greenwich
180° line of longitude - International Date line
90° line of latitude - Pole
V Examine the following statements
1. The Earth is spherical in shape.
2. The shape of the Earth is called a geoid.
3. The Earth is flat.
Look at the options given below and choose the correct answer
a) 1 and 3 are correct
b) 2 and 3 are correct
c) 1 and 2 are correct
d) 1,2 and 3 are correct
Answer: c) 1 and 2 are correct
VI Examine the following statements
Statement I : The lines of latitude on Earth are used to find the location of a place and define the heat zones on Earth.
Statement II : The lines of longitudes on Earth are used to find the location of a place and to calculate time.
Choose the correct option
a) Statement I is correct; II is wrong
b) Statement I is wrong; II correct
c) Both the statements are correct
d) Both the statements are wrong
Answer: c) both the statements are correct
VII Name the following
1. The imaginary lines drawn horizontally on Earth. Latitudes
2. The imaginary lines drawn vertically on Earth. Longitude
3. The three dimensional model of the Earth. Globe
4. India is located in this hemisphere based on lines of longitude. Eastern hemisphere
5. The network of lines of latitude and longitude. Earth Grid or Geographic grid
VIII Answer briefly
1. What is a geoid?
The Earth which is spherical, is flat at the poles and bulges at the Equator. The Earth cannot be compared with any other geometrical shape as it has a very unique shape. Hence, its shape is called a geoid.
2. What is local time?
When the sun is overhead on a particular line of longitude, it is 12 noon at all the places located on that line of longitude. This is called local time.
3. How many times would the sun pass overhead a line of longitude?
The Sun passes overhead a line of longitude only once in a day.
4. What are lines of latitude and longitude?
The imaginary lines drawn horizontally from the East to West on the globe and maps are called lines of latitude or parallels. The imaginary lines drawn vertically from the North to South on the globe and maps are known as lines of longitude or meridians.
5. Name the four hemispheres of the Earth.
1. Northern Hemisphere
2. Southern Hemisphere
3. Eastern Hemisphere
4. Western Hemisphere
IX Give reasons
1. The 0° line of longitude is called the Greenwich Meridian.
It passes through Greenwich
2. The regions on Earth between North & South lines of latitude (66 ½°) and poles (90°) is called Frigid Zone
From the Arctic Circle (66 ½ °N) to the North Pole (90°N) and from the Antarctic Circle (66 ½ °S) to the South Pole (90°S), the Sun’s rays fall further inclined, throughout the year. The temperature is very low. Hence, this region is known as Frigid Zone.
3. The International Date Line runs zigzag.
The International Date Line is not straight. If the line is drawn straight, two places in the same country would have different dates. So the International Date Line is found zigzag in certain places to avoid confusion.
X Answer in detail
1. What are the uses of globe?
The globe helps us to see the shape of the Earth as a whole. We can learn the unique features of the Earth using the globe.
2. How are the hemispheres divided on the basis of lines of latitude and longitude? Explain with diagrams.
Northern Hemisphere : The area of the Earth found between the Equator (00) and the North Pole (90°N) is called the Northern Hemisphere.
Southern Hemisphere : The area of the Earth from the Equator (0°) to the South Pole (90°S) is called the Southern Hemisphere.
Eastern Hemisphere : The part of the Earth between the 0° line of longitude and the 180° East line of longitude is known as the Eastern Hemisphere.
Western Hemisphere: The part of the Earth from 0° line of longitude to 180° West line of longitude is called Western Hemisphere.
3. What are the significant lines of latitude? Explain the zones found between them.
The earth rotates on its axis at an inclination of 23 ½°. It also revolves around the sun while rotating. Based on the angle at which the sun's rays fall on the earth, certain lines of latitude gain significance.
The Sun's rays do not fall equally on all parts of the earth. They fall vertically over the Equator and slanting towards the poles. Thus, all the places on earth do not have the same amount of temperature. Based on the amount of heat received from the Sun, the lines of latitude help in dividing the earth into different climatic zones.
Torrid Zone: The region from the Equator towards the Tropic of Cancer (23 ½ °N) and the Tropic of Capricorn (23 ½ °S) is called the Torrid Zone. The Sun's rays fall vertically over this region and the average temperature is very high. Hence this region is known as the Torrid Zone.
Temperate Zone : From the Tropic of Cancer (23 ½ °N) to the Arctic Circle (66 ½ °N) and from the Tropic of Capricorn (23 ½°S) to the Antarctic Circle (66 ½ °S), the Sun's rays fall slantingly. Moderate temperature prevails in this region. Hence, this region is called Temperate Zone.
Frigid Zone : From the Arctic Circle (66 ½ °N) to the North Pole (90°N) and from the Antarctic Circle (66 ½ °S) to the South Pole (90°S), the Sun's rays fall further inclined, throughout the year. The temperature is very low. Hence, this region is known as Frigid Zone.
4. Explain: Indian Standard Time.
The longitudinal extent of India is from 68°7' E to 97°25' E. As many as twenty nine lines of longitude pass through India. Having 29 standard time is not logical. Hence 82 ½ ° E line of longitude is observed as the Prime Meridian to calculate the Indian Standard Time (IST).
There are five positions marked on the grid given below. Look at them carefully and fill the blanks with reference to the lines of latitude and longitude. The first one is done for you.
1. The latitudinal and longitudinal reference of point A 40° N 30° W
2. The latitudinal and longitudinal reference of point B 10°W
3. The latitudinal and longitudinal reference of point C 20°E
4. The latitudinal and longitudinal reference of point D 50°E
5. The latitudinal and longitudinal reference of point E 20°W