Ethics in Marketing
The American Marketing Association commits itself to promoting the highest standard of professional ethical norms and values for its members (practitioners, academics and students). Norms are established standards of conduct that are expected and maintained by society and/or professional organizations. Values represent the collective conception of what communities find desirable, important and morally proper. Values also serve as the criteria for evaluating our own personal actions and the actions of others. As marketers, we recognize that we not only serve our organizations but also act as stewards of society in creating, facilitating and executing the transactions that are part of the greater economy. In this role, marketers are expected to embrace the highest professional ethical norms and the ethical values implied by our responsibility toward multiple stakeholders (e.g., customers, employees, investors, peers, channel members, regulators and the host community).
As Marketers, we must:
1. Do no harm. This means consciously avoiding harmful actions or omissions by embodying high ethical standards and adhering to all applicable laws and regulations in the choices we make.
2. Foster trust in the marketing system. This means striving for good faith and fair dealing so as to contribute toward the efficacy of the exchange process as well as avoiding deception in product design, pricing, communication, and delivery of distribution.
3. Embrace ethical values. This means building relationships and enhancing consumer confidence in the integrity of marketing by affirming these core values: honesty, responsibility, fairness, respect, transparency and citizenship.
Honesty – to be forthright in dealings with customers and stakeholders. To this end, we will:
Strive to be truthful in all situations and at all times.
Offer products of value that do what we claim in our communications. Stand behind our products if they fail to deliver their claimed benefits. Honor our explicit and implicit commitments and promises.
Responsibility – to accept the consequences of our marketing decisions and strategies. To this end, we will:
Strive to serve the needs of customers.
Avoid using coercion with all stakeholders.
Acknowledge the social obligations to stakeholders that come with increased marketing and economic power.
Recognize our special commitments to vulnerable market segments such as children, seniors, the economically impoverished, market illiterates and others who may be substantially disadvantaged.
Consider environmental stewardship in our decision-making.
Fairness – to balance justly the needs of the buyer with the interests of the seller. To this end, we will:
Represent products in a clear way in selling, advertising and other forms of communication; this includes the avoidance of false, misleading and deceptive promotion.
Reject manipulations and sales tactics that harm customer trust.
Refuse to engage in price fixing, predatory pricing, price gouging or ―bait-and-switch‖ tactics.
Avoid knowing participation in conflicts of interest.
Seek to protect the private information of customers, employees and partners.
Respect – to acknowledge the basic human dignity of all stakeholders. To this end, we will:
Value individual differences and avoid stereotyping customers or depicting demographic groups (e.g., gender, race, sexual orientation) in a negative or dehumanizing way.
Listen to the needs of customers and make all reasonable efforts to monitor and improve their satisfaction on an ongoing basis.
Make every effort to understand and respectfully treat buyers, suppliers, intermediaries and distributors from all cultures.
Acknowledge the contributions of others, such as consultants, employees and coworkers, to marketing endeavors.
Treat everyone, including our competitors, as we would wish to be treated.
Transparency – to create a spirit of openness in marketing operations. To this end, we will:
Strive to communicate clearly with all constituencies.
Accept constructive criticism from customers and other stakeholders.
Explain and take appropriate action regarding significant product or service risks, component substitutions or other foreseeable eventualities that could affect customers or their perception of the purchase decision.
Disclose list prices and terms of financing as well as available price deals and adjustments.
Citizenship – to fulfill the economic, legal, philanthropic and societal responsibilities that serve stakeholders. To this end, we will:
Strive to protect the ecological environment in the execution of marketing campaigns.
Give back to the community through volunteerism and charitable donations. Contribute to the overall betterment of marketing and its reputation.
Urge supply chain members to ensure that trade is fair for all participants, including producers in developing countries.
Consumer Behavior Online
Commands most of the media‗s attention Organizational buyers
Governments and public organizations Private corporations
Purchasing types and experiences
2 dimensions of shopping experiences Utilitarian—to achieve a goal Hedonic—because it‗s fun
3 categories of consumers
Impulsive buyers—purchase quickly
Patient buyers—make some comparisons first
Analytical buyers—do substantial research before buying
Demographics of Internet Surfers
Social variables – influenced by peers Cultural variables
Other environmental variables - e.g. government restrictions
Personal characteristics / demographics
Consumer resources and lifestyle Age; gender; marital status
Knowledge and educational level Attitudes and values
Motivation Personality Ethnicity
More experience on Web more to buy online
Two major reasons people do not buy online
Difficulty judging the quality of the product
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