Effect of Urbanization and
Industrialisation on Environment:
For fair livelihood in a comfortable environment we need many things
like houses, roads, schools and colleges, shops and markets, hospitals and post
offices etc. A town or city develops with all these facilities. The system by
which a town or city develops is called urbanization. To develop an ideal town
some important aspects should be taken into consideration. Towns and cities of
our country have not been developed in well-planned way as those of the
developed countries of the world. Except the new part of Dhaka and some areas of
Chittagong, our towns are developed absolutely without any planning. While
establishing an ideal town some important aspects should be taken into
consideration with great importance.
To establish a town primarily it
is necessary to select a suitable site.
To live in comfort it is
necessary to construct neat, clean and comfortable houses. In these houses
there should have clean and pure water supply, electricity, gas supply and
proper sanitary system.
For proper supply of daily
necessities and fresh vegetables, fish and meat, there should have shops and
For maintaining cleanness and
healthy condition in these shops and markets, Public health department should
supervise them regularly.
For treatment of diseases there
should have dispensaries and hospitals, population control and family planning
centers, maternities etc.
Along with schools and colleges
for children's education there should have arrangement to establish libraries,
recreation and health-care centers, including playgrounds, clubs, parks etc.
There should have suitable
recreation center for aged people so that they can pass a life of ease.
There should have arrangements
for prevention and treatments of various contagious diseases so that these may
not turn into epidemics.
There should have necessary job
provision for the town dwellers.
Due to gradual increase of population there develops undesired formation
of slums in vacant places inside and around the towns. In these slums uproote
people live in extremely miserable condition. This situation is gradually
turning to be more acute. As a result various social and hygienic problems are
being created. Unplanned urbanization results extreme deterioration of the
The environment of the slums, developed for the new comers from the
villages, is dirty and unhealthy. Because in these slums there is no water
supply or drainage and sewerage system. There is no facility of collecting
water from rivers, canals, ponds or pools like villages. As a result the slum
dwellers often suffer from various water borne diseases. From these slums
diseases spread to other areas of the town also. But in towns purified and
chlorinated water is stored in big tanks at a high level. Water is then
supplied to different areas of the town through pipelines. But for excess
population the stored water is not sufficient. Consequently the inhabitants of
the town suffer from water shortage.
The supply of fuel is a significant problem of unplanned urbanization
Previously in town also, wood and dry cowdung were used for cooking. But at
present natural gas is being used. Now a day, in many countries, Bio-gas is
being used for cooking. Smoke originates from both wood and dried cow dung and
pollutes the air. For unplanned urbanization supply of natural gas cannot be
ensured to every corner and for all the time.
Because of rapid increase of population people from villages are rushing
to towns in search of livelihood. The urbanization process must be planned for
them. Otherwise there will be no comfort in life of the town dwellers and the
environment will be polluted day by day.
Commercial establishment of mills, factories and machineries for the
production of various necessary materials for the people is known as
industrialisation. With the objective of industrialisation various types of
industries have been established in the world.
Previously men were dependent more on articles available in the nature.
But with the advancement of human civilization; industrialisation is also
improving rapidly. In the recent past there was a balance between birth rate
and death rate in the world, particularly in Bangladesh. At present number of
death caused by natural calamities like cyclone, famine, different fatal
diseases, aggression and bite of harmful animals, is much less than as prevaile
in the past. Now a day there are preventive measures for protections against
the disastrous effect of every natural calamity. For example the forecast of
cyclone is available before hand and taking shelter in safe places people can
save their lives. With the improvement of communications system famine do not
occur as frequently as before, even if it occurs food can be supplied easily.
Prevention of hunting wild animal and adopting defensive measures against their
attack has made human life safer than before. Taking effective and preventive
measures against severe diseases man has become able to recover from his
illness and avoid inevitable death. Thus the average longevity of human being
has increased. As a result with increased longevity people can give birth to
children in greater number. Above all the general people of Bangladesh are
reluctant to adopt family planning for which the population of this country is
increasing rapidly. For this increase in population the cultivable land and
forest areas are gradually decreasing. Thus the demands of agriculture as the
main livelihood of our country can no longer be met from agriculture alone. For
this reason it is necessary to establish industries in a well planned way. But
our conventional industries are dependent on our natural resources. As the raw
materials produced in our country are not sufficient for the need, thus
necessary raw materials are to be imported from foreign countries.