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Consider a D.C generator whose field coil is excited to produce a flux density distribution along the air gap and the armature is driven by a prime mover at constant speed as shown in figure
Let us assume a p polar d.c generator is driven (by a prime mover) at n rps. The excitation of the stator field is such that it produces a φ Wb flux per pole. Also let z be the total number of armature conductors and a be the number of parallel paths in the armature circuit. In general, as discussed in the earlier section the magnitude of the voltage from one conductor to another is likely to very since flux density distribution is trapezoidal in nature. Therefore, total average voltage across the brushes is calculated on the basis of average flux density Bav. If D and L are the rotor diameter and the length of the machine in meters then area under each pole is . Hence average flux density in the gap is given by
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