Home | | Pathology | EDEMA

Chapter: Pathology: Circulatory Pathology


Edema is the presence of excess fluid in the intercellular space.


Edema is the presence of excess fluid in the intercellular space. It has many causes.

·            Increased hydrostatic pressure causes edema in congestive heart failure (gen-eralized edema), portal hypertension, renal retention of salt and water, and venous thrombosis (local edema).

·            Hypoalbuminemia and decreased colloid osmotic pressure cause edema inliver disease, nephrotic syndrome, and protein deficiency (e.g., kwashiorkor).

·            Lymphatic obstruction (lymphedema) causes edema in tumor, following sur-gical removal of lymph node drainage, and in parasitic infestation (filariasis elephantiasis).

·            Increased endothelial permeability causes edema in inflammation, type Ihypersensitivity reactions, and with some drugs (e.g., bleomycin, heroin, etc.).

·            Increased interstitial sodium causes edema when there is increased sodiumintake, primary hyperaldosteronism, and renal failure.

·            Specialized forms of tissue swelling due to increased extracellular glycos-aminoglycans also occur, notably in pretibial myxedema and exophthalmos(Graves disease).

·              Anasarca is severe generalized edema. Effusion is fluid within the body cavities.

Types of Edema Fluid

·            Transudate is edema fluid with low protein content.


·            Exudate is edema fluid with high protein content and cells. Types of exudatesinclude purulent (pus), fibrinous, eosinophilic, and hemorrhagic.


·            Lymphedema related to lymphatic obstruction leads to accumulation of pro-tein-rich fluid which produces a non-pitting edema.


·              Glycosaminoglycan-rich edema fluid shows increased hyaluronic acid andchondroitin sulfate, and causes myxedema.

Active hyperemia versus congestion (passive hyperemia): an excessive amount of blood in a tissue or organ can accumulate secondary to vasodilatation (active, e.g., inflammation) or diminished venous outflow (passive, e.g., hepatic congestion).

Study Material, Lecturing Notes, Assignment, Reference, Wiki description explanation, brief detail
Pathology: Circulatory Pathology : EDEMA |

Privacy Policy, Terms and Conditions, DMCA Policy and Compliant

Copyright © 2018-2024 BrainKart.com; All Rights Reserved. Developed by Therithal info, Chennai.