Disposal Of Sewage And Sludge : Introduction
DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE AND SLUDGE : INTRODUCTION
As research into the characteristics of wastewater has become more extensive, and as the techniques for analyzing specific constituents and their potential health and environmental effects have become more comprehensive, the body of scientific knowledge has expanded significantly. Many of the new treatment methods being developed are designed to deal with health and environmental concerns associated with findings of recent research. However, the advancement in treatment technology effectiveness has not kept pace with the enhanced constituent detection capability. Pollutants can be detected at lower concentrations than can be attained by available treatment technology. Therefore, careful assessment of health and environment effects and community concerns about these effects becomes increasingly important in wastewater management. The need to establish a dialogue with the community is important to assure that health and environmental issues are being addressed.
Water quality issues arise when increasing amounts of treated wastewater are discharged to water bodies that are eventually used as water supplies. The waters of the Mississippi River and many rivers in the eastern United States are used for municipal and industrial water supplies and as repositories for the resulting treated wastewater. In southern California, a semiarid region, increasing amounts of reclaimed wastewater are being used or are planned to be used for groundwater recharge to augment existing potable water supplies. Significant questions remain about the testing and levels of treatment necessary to protect human health where the commingling of highly treated waste- water with drinking water sources results in indirect potable reuse.