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Fig.1.3 Clock rate and power for Intel x86 microprocessors
The dominant technology for integrated circuits is called CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor). For CMOS, the primary source of energy consumption is so-called dynamic energy— that is, energy that is consumed when transistors switch states from 0 to 1 and vice versa. The dynamic energy depends on the capacitive loading of each transistor and the voltage applied.
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