Campylobacters are motile, curved, oxidase-positive, Gram-negative rods similar in mor-phology to vibrios. The cells have polar flagella and are often are attached at their ends giving pairs “S” shapes or a “seagull” appearance. More than a dozen Campylobacterspecies have been associated with human disease. Of these C. jejuni, and C. coli are by far the most common and similar enough to be considered as one. Some other Campy-lobacter species are potential causes of diarrhea, but only C. jejuni will be discussed here.The features of other species are summarized in Table 22 – 2.