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Chapter: Computer Architecture - Processor and Control Unit

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Building Data Path and Control Implementation Scheme

Datapath: Components of the processor that perform arithmetic operations and holds data.

BUILDING DATA PATH AND CONTROL IMPLEMENTATION SCHEME

Datapath

 Components of the  processor that perform arithmetic operations and holds data.

Control

 

·    Components of the processor that commands the datapath, memory, I/O devices according to the instructions of the memory.

 

Building a Datapath

·    Elements that process data and addresses  in the CPU - Memories, registers, ALUs.

·    MIPS datapath can be built incrementally by considering only a subset of instructions

·    3 main elements  are


Fig. 3.1 Datapath

 

·     A memory unit to store instructions of a program and supply instructions given an address. Needs to provide only read access (once the program is loaded).- No control signal is needed

 

·     PC (Program Counter or Instruction address register) is a register that holds the address of the current instruction

 

Ø     A new value is written to it every clock cycle. No control signal is required to enable write

Ø     Adder to increment the PC to the address of the next  instruction

 

·     An ALU permanently wired to do only addition.  No extra control signal required


Fig. 3.2 Datapath portion for Instruction Fetch

Types of Elements in the Datapath

State element:

 

·     A memory element, i.e., it contains a state

 

·     E.g., program counter, instruction memory Combinational element:

 

·     Elements that operate on values

·     Eg adder ALU E.g. adder, ALU

 

Elements  required by the different classes of instructions

 

·     Arithmetic and logical instructions

·     Data transfer instructions

·     Branch instructions

 

R-Format ALU Instructions

 

·     E.g., add $t1, $t2, $t3

·     Perform arithmetic/logical operation

·     Read two register operands and write register  result

 

Register file:

 

·     A collection of the registers

·     Any register can be read or written by specifying  the number of the register

·     Contains the register state of the computer

 

Read from register

 

·     2 inputs to the register file specifying the numbers

         5 bit wide inputs for the 32 registers

 

·     2 outputs from the register file with the read values

         32 bit wide

 

·     For all instructions. No control required.

 

Write to register file

 

·     1 input to the register file specifying the number  5 bit wide inputs for the 32 registers

·     1 input to the register file with the value to be written  32 bit wide

 

·     Only for some instructions. RegWrite control signal.

 

ALU

 

·     Takes two 32 bit input and produces a 32 bit output

·     Also, sets one-bit signal if the results is 0

 

·     The operation done by ALU is controlled by a 4 bit control signal input. This is set according to the instruction .

 

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