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Chapter: Microprocessor and Microcontroller - 8051 Micro Controller

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Architecture of 8051 Micro Controller

1 Memory Organization 2 Interrupt Structure 3 Port Structure 4 Timer/Counter

 

Architecture of 8051

 

 

1 Memory Organization

 

ü Logical separation of program and data memory

ü Separate address spaces for Program (ROM) and Data (RAM) Memory

 

ü Allow Data Memory to be accessed by 8-bit addresses quickly and manipulated by 8-bit CPU

 

Program Memory

 

ü Only be read, not written to

ü The address space is 16-bit, so maximum of 64K bytes

 

ü Up to 4K bytes can be on-chip (internal) of 8051 core

ü PSEN (Program Store Enable) is used for access to external Program Memory

 

Data Memory

 

ü Includes 128 bytes of on-chip Data Memory which are more easily accessible directly by its instructions

 

ü There is also a number of Special Function Registers (SFRs)

 

ü Internal Data Memory contains four banks of eight registers and a special 32- byte long segment which is bit addressable by 8051 bit-instructions

ü External memory of maximum 64K bytes is accessible by “movx”

 


 

 

2 Interrupt Structure

 

ü The 8051 provides 4 interrupt sources

ü Two external interrupts

ü Two timer interrupts

 

3 Port Structure

 

ü The 8051 contains four I/O ports

ü All four ports are bidirectional

 

ü Each port has SFR (Special Function Registers P0 through P3) which works like a latch, an output driver and an input buffer

 

ü Both output driver and input buffer of Port 0 and output driver of Port 2 are used for accessing external memory

 

ü Accessing external memory works like this

 

ü Port 0 outputs the low byte of external memory address (which is time- multiplexed with the byte being written or read)

 

ü Port 2 outputs the high byte (only needed when the address is 16 bits wide)

ü Port 3 pins are multifunctional

ü     The alternate functions are activated with the 1 written in the corresponding bit in the port SFR

 

Table 4.1 Alternate Functions of Port 3 pins


 

 

4 Timer/Counter

 

ü The 8051 has two 16-bit Timer/Counter registers

1.     Timer 0

 

2.     Timer 1

ü Both can work either as timers or event counters

ü Both have four different operating modes


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