A runway is a rectangular area on the airport surface prepared for the takeoff and landing of aircraft. An airport may have one runway or several runways which are sited, oriented, and configured in a manner to provide for the safe and efficient use of the airport under a variety of conditions. Several of the factors which affect the location, orientation, and number of runways at an airport include local weather conditions, particularly wind distribution and visibility, the topography of the airport and surrounding area, the type and amount of air traffic to be serviced at the airport, aircraft performance requirements, and aircraft noise .
The term ?runway configuration? refers to th orientations of one or more runways on an airfield. Many runway configurations exist. Most configurations are combinations of several basic configurations. The basic configurations are (1) single runways, (2) parallel runways, (3) intersecting runways, and (4) open-V runways.
It has been estimated that the hourly capacity of a single runway in VFR conditions is somewhere between 50 and 100 operations per hour, while in IFR conditions this capacity is reduced to 50 to 70 operations per hour, depending on the composition of the aircraft mix and navigational aids available .
The capacities of parallel runway systems depend on the number of runways and on the spacing between the runways. Two, three, and four parallel runways are common. The spacing between parallel runways varies widely. For the purpose of this discussion, the spacing is classified as close, intermediate, and far, depending on the centerline separation between two parallel runways. Close parallel runways are spaced from a minimum of 700 ft (for air carrier airports) to less than 2500 ft . In IFR conditions an operation of one runway is dependent on the operation of other runway. Intermediate parallel runways are spaced between 2500 ft to less than 4300 ft . In IFR conditions an arrival on one runway is independent of a departure on the other runway. Far parallel runways are spaced at least 4300 ft apart . In IFR conditions the two runways can be operated independently for both arrivals and departures. Therefore, as noted earlier, the centerline separation of parallel runways determines the degree of interdependence between operations on each of the parallel runways. It should be recognized that in future the spacing requirements for simultaneous operations on parallel runways may be reduced. If this occurs, new spacing can be applied to the same classifications.
If the terminal buildings are placed between parallel runways, runways are always spaced far enough apart to allow room for the buildings, the adjoining apron, and the appropriate taxiways. When there are four parallel runways, each pair is spaced close, but the pairs are spaced far apart to provide space for terminal buildings. In VFR conditions, close parallel runways allow simultaneous arrivals and departures, that is, arrivals may occur on one runway while departures are occurring on the other runway. Aircraft operating on the runways must have wingspans less than 171 ft (airplane design groups I through IV, see Table 6-2) for centerline spacing at the minimum of 700 ft . If larger wingspan aircraft are operating on these runways (airplane design groups V and VI), the centerline spacing must be at least 1200 ft for such simultaneous operations . In either case, wake vortex avoidance procedures must be used for simultaneous operations on closely spaced parallel runways. Furthermore, simultaneous arrivals to both runways or simultaneous departures from both runways are not allowed in VFR conditions for closely spaced parallel runways. In IFR conditions, closely spaced parallel runways cannot be used simultaneously but may be operated as dual-lane runways. Intermediate parallel runways may be operated with simultaneous arrivals in VFR conditions. Intermediate parallel runways may be operated in IFR conditions with simultaneous departures in a nonradar environment if the centerline spacing is at least 3500 ft and in a radar environment if the centerline spacing is at least 2500 ft . Simultaneous arrivals and departures are also permitted if the centerline spacing is at least 2500 ft if the thresholds of the runways are not staggered . There are times when it may be desirable to stagger the thresholds of parallel runways. The staggering may be necessary because of the shape of the acreage available for runway construction, or it may be desirable for reducing the taxiing distance of takeoff and landing aircraft. The reduction in taxiing distance, however, is based on the premise that one runway is to be used exclusively for takeoff and the other for landing. In this case the terminal buildings are located between the runways so that the taxiing distance for each type of operation (takeoff or landing) is minimized. If the runway thresholds are staggered, adjustments to the centerline spacing requirement are allowed for simultaneous arrivals and departures . If the arrivals are on the near threshold then the centerline spacing may be reduced by 100 ft for each 500 ft of threshold stagger down to a minimum centerline separation of 1000 ft for aircraft with wingspans up to 171 ft and a minimum of 1200 ft for larger wingspan aircraft. If the arrivals are on the far threshold the centerline spacing must be increased by 100 ft for each 500 ft of threshold stagger. Simultaneous arrivals in IFR conditions are not permitted on intermediate parallel runways but are permitted on far parallel runways with centerline spacings of at least 4300 ft .
The hourly capacity of a pair of parallel runways in VFR conditions varies greatly from 60 to 200 operations per hour depending on the aircraft mix and the manner in which arrivals and departures are processed on these runways . Similarly, in IFR conditions the hourly capacity of a pair of closely spaced parallel runways ranges from 50 to 60 operations per hour, of a pair of intermediate parallel runways from 60 to 75 operations per hour, and for a pair of far parallel runways from 100 to 125 operations per hour .
A dual-lane parallel runway consists of two closely spaced parallel runways with appropriate exit taxiways. Although both runways can be used for mixed operations subject to the conditions noted above, the desirable mode of operation is to dedicate the runway farthest from the terminal building (outer) for arrivals and the runway closest to the terminal building (inner) for departures. It is estimated that a dual-lane runway can handle at least 70 percent more traffic than a single runway in VFR conditions and about 60 percent more traffic than a single runway in IFR conditions. It is recommended that the two runways be spaced not less than 1000 ft apart (1200 ft, where particularly larger wingspan aircraft are involved). This spacing also provides sufficient distance for an arrival to stop between the two runways. A parallel taxiway between the runways will provide for a nominal increase in capacity, but is not essential. The major benefit of a dual-lane runway is to provide an increase in IFR capacity with minimal acquisition of land.
Many airports have two or more runways in different directions crossing each other. These are referred to as intersecting runways. Intersecting runways are necessary when relatively strong winds occur from more than one direction, resulting in excessive crosswinds when only one runway is provided. When the winds are strong, only one runway of a pair of intersecting runways can be used, reducing the capacity of the airfield substantially. If the winds are relatively light, both runways can be used simultaneously. The capacity of two intersecting runways depends on the location of the intersection (i.e., midway or near the ends), the manner in which the runways are operated for takeoffs and landings, referred to as the runway use strategy, and the aircraft mix. The farther the intersection is from the takeoff end of the runway and the landing threshold, the lower is the capacity. The highest capacity is achieved when the intersection is close to the takeoff
and landing threshold.
Runways in different directions which do not intersect are referred to as open-V runways. This configuration is shown in Fig. 6-4. Like intersecting runways, open-V runways revert to a single runway when winds are strong from one direction. When the winds are light, both runways may be used simultaneously.
The strategy which yields the highest capacity is when operations are away from the V and this is referred to as a diverging pattern. In VFR the hourly capacity for this strategy ranges from 60 to 180 operations per hour, and in IFR the corresponding capacity is from 50 to 80 operations per hour . When operations are toward the V it is referred to as a converging pattern and the capacity is reduced to 50 to 100 operations per hour in VFR and to between 50 and 60 operations per hour in IFR .
Combinations of Runway Configurations
From the standpoint of capacity and air traffic control, a single-direction runway configuration is most desirable. All other things being equal, this configuration will yield the highest capacity compared with other configurations. For air traffic control the routing of aircraft in a single direction is less complex than routing in multiple directions. Comparing the divergent configurations, the open-V runway pattern is more desirable than an intersecting runway configuration. In the open-V configuration an operating strategy that routes aircraft away from the V will yield higher capacities than if the operations are reversed. If intersecting runways cannot be avoided, every effort should be made to place the intersections of both runways as close as possible to their thresholds and to operate the aircraft away from the intersection rather than toward the intersection.
Chicago's O'Hare Field, with multiple parall runways. It should be noted that a large capital improvement program is being undertaken to simplify the runway configuration, by adding additional parallel runways and removing many intersecting runways. This runway redesign is being done with the intention of improving the capacity and efficiency of airport operations at the airport.
The orientation of a runway is defined by the direction, relative to magnetic north, of the operations performed by aircraft on the runway. Typically, but not always, runways are oriented in such a manner that they may be used in either direction. It is less preferred to orient a runway in such a way that operating in one direction is precluded, normally due to nearby obstacles.
In addition to obstacle clearance considerations, which will be discussed later in this chapter, runways are typically oriented based on the area's wind conditions. As such, an anal planning runways. As a general rule, the primary runway at an airport should be oriented as closely as practicable in the direction of the prevailing winds. When landing and taking off, aircraft are able to maneuver on a runway as long as the wind component at right angles to the direction of travel, the crosswind component, is not excessive. The FAA recommends that runways should be oriented so that aircraft may be landed at least 95 percent of the time with allowable crosswind components not exceeding specified limits based upon the airport reference code associated with the critical aircraft that has the shortest wingspan or slowest approach speed. When the wind coverage is less than 95 percent a crosswind runway is recommended.
The allowable crosswind is 10.5 kn (12 mi/h) for Airport Reference Codes A-I and B-I, 13 kn (15 mi/h) for Airport Reference Codes A-II and B-II, 16 kn (18.5 mi/h) for Airport Reference Codes A-III,
B-III, C-I, C-II, C-III and C-IV, and 20 knots (23 mph) for Airport Reference Codes A-IV through D-VI .
ICAO also specifies that runways should be oriented so that aircraft may be landed at least 95 percent of the time with crosswind components of 20 kn (23 mph) for runway lengths of 1500 m more, 13 kn (15 mi/h) for runway lengths between 1200 and 1500 m, and 10 kn (11.5 mi/h) for runway lengths less than 1200 m .
Once the maximum permissible crosswind component is selected, the most desirable direction of runways for wind coverage can be determined by examination of the average wind characteristics at the airport under the following conditions:
1. The entire wind coverage regardless of visibility or cloud ceiling
2. Wind conditions when the ceiling is at least 1000 ft and the visibility is at least 3 mi
3. Wind conditions when ceiling is between 200 and 1000 ft and/or the visibility is between . and 3 mi.
The first condition represents the entire range of visibility, from excellent to very poor, and is termed the all weather condition. The next condition represents the range of good visibility conditions not
requiring the use of instruments for landing, termed visual meteorological condition (VMC). The last condition represents various degrees
of poor visibility requiring the use of instruments for landing, termed instrument meteorological conditions (IMC).
The 95 percent criterion suggested by the FAA and ICAO is applicable to all conditions of weather; nevertheless it is still useful to
examine the data in parts whenever this is possible.
In the United States, weather records can be obtained from the Environmental Data and Information Service of the National Climatic Center at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration located in Ashville, N.C., or from various locations found on the Internet.
Weather data are collected from weather stations throughout the United States on an hourly basis and recorded for analysis. The data collected include ceiling, visibility, wind speed, wind direction, storms, barometric pressure, the amount and type of liquid and frozen
precipitation, temperature, and relative humidity. A report illustrating the tabulation and representation of some of the data of use in
airport studies was prepared for the FAA. The weather records contain the percentage of time certain combinations of ceiling and visibility occur (e.g., ceiling, 500 to 900 ft; visibility, 3 to 6 mi), and the percentage of time winds of specified velocity ranges occur from different directions (e.g., from NNE, 4 to 7 mi/h). The directions are referenced to true north.