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AGV & RGV types of robots
Automated Guided Vehicles:
An AGV is a computer controlled, driverless vehicle used for transporting materials from point-to-point in a manufacturing setting.
They represent a major category of automated materials handling devices. They are guided along defined pathways in the floor.
The vehicles are powered by means of on-board batteries that allow operation for several hours between recharging.
The definition of the pathways is generally accomplished using wire embedded in the floor or reflective paint on the floor surface. Guidance is achieved by sensors on the vehicles that can follow the guide wires or paint.
When it arrives at the proper destination, the material is off loaded onto another conveyor or the workstation. The vehicle is then dispatched to the next location or to home to await further orders. A computer controls its motion.
The key terms in AGV are Guide path — The term guide path refers to the actual path the AGV follows in making its rounds through manufacturing plant. The guide path may be of the embedded wire type or optical devices.
Routing — It is the ability of the AGV to make decisions that allow it to select the appropriate route as it moves across the shop floor.
These are the most widely used type of AG V‘s and are calledTheyare mostthe commonly used for transporting large amounts of bulky and heavy materials
from the warehouse to various locations in the manufacturing plant, e.g. driverless train
Unit load vehicles
They are used in settings with short guide paths, high volume, and need for independent movement and versatility. Warehouses and distribution centres are the most likely settings for these vehicles. They can operate in an environment where there is not much room and movement is restricted.
Rail Guided Vehicles:
Motorised vehicles that are guided by a fixed rail system constitute a third category of material transport systems.
If the system uses just one rail it is called a monorail system; whereas it can also consist of a two-rail system. Monorails typically operate from a suspended position overhead, while two-rail systems are generally found on the plant floor.
Vehicles operate asynchronously and are driven by an on-board electric motor, with power being supplied by an electrified rail. This removes the necessity of stoppages owing to battery-power wear-out, as with AGVs, but it presents a new safety hazard in the form of the electrified rail.
Routing variations are possible in rail systems through a combination of turntables, switches, and other specialised track sections. This allows different loads to travel different routes, in a similar manner to an AGVS.
Sorting Transfer Vehicle (STV) is a fast, flexible and easily installed material transport system. STVs can be used to move loads of all sizes in a warehouse.
STV features sorting and collecting capabilities for multiple AS/RS aisle conveyor stations. It enables picking by order line and sorting by destination to one.
The STV track can be arranged in a loop or straight line to accommodate a variety of applications, such as mixed SKU pallet picking, cycle counting, quality inspection, load sorting and truck loading.
Advantages of STVs include: fewer motors, no single point of failure, high-speed, high-throughput and expansion flexibility to handle future growth.
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