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Chapter: 12th English : Prose : On the Rule of the Road

On the Rule of the Road | Prose | By A.G. Gardiner | Study Material, Lecturing Notes, Assignment, Reference, Wiki description explanation, brief detail |

Grammar

Agreement of the subject with the verb, Concord or agreement denotes the agreement between the subject and the verb in a sentence. In general, a singular subject takes a singular verb and a plural subject takes a plural verb.

Grammar

Agreement of the subject with the verb

Let us recall what you have learnt earlier about Subject–Verb agreement.

Study the following pairs of sentences.

  Every citizen has to follow the rules of the society.

  All citizens have duties to perform.

In sentence 1, the subject ‘every citizen’ is of the singular Number. Hence the verb ‘has’ is also singular.

In sentence 2, the subject ‘All citizens’ is of the Plural Number. Hence the verb ‘have’ is also plural.

The verb should agree with the subject in Number and Person.

 

Concord or agreement denotes the agreement between the subject and the verb in a sentence. In general, a singular subject takes a singular verb and a plural subject takes a plural verb.

Read the following sentences.

  I go to school by bus.

  She goes to school by cycle.

The subject in sentence 1 is the pronoun ‘I’. The verb agrees with the subject.

The subject in sentence 2 is a pronoun of the third person. The verb used is ‘goes’.

Observe these sentences.

 Every man and every woman has duties to perform.

  Each boy and each girl was given a special prize.

When two singular nouns joined by ‘and’ are preceded by ‘each’ or ‘every’ the pronoun must be singular and the verb is also singular.

Read the sentences given below.

  The team is performing well.

  The staff are arguing about the dates of the tour programme.

  The class is organising a debate.

  The class are arguing over the issue.

  The jury has given its verdict.

  The jury are divided in their opinion.

Some of the collective nouns like ‘class, cabinet, committee, board, jury, government, team and staff, take a singular verb when they are considered a unit, and a plural verb if the members are considered individually.

Observe the following sentences.

 The scenery of Kashmir is enchanting.

  All the information he gave me was false.

  All the furniture has been remodelled.

  Your hair has turned grey.

  His luggage is missing.

Nouns such as advice, alphabet, brick, clothing, furniture, information, luggage, poetry, scenery, thunder etc. are used only in the singular form and the verb that follows them is also singular. They are neither preceded by an indefinite article nor pluralised.

Look at the sentences given below.

  The Correspondent and Principal has called for a meeting.

  The Correspondent and the Principal are attending a meeting.

When ‘and’ connects two or more titles or designations of the same person, the verb is always singular. In sentence 1, two posts are held by the same person. So the verb is singular. In sentence 2, the posts are held by two different persons. Hence the verb is plural.

Observe the following sentences.

  Five rupees has no value these days.

  Three miles is a short distance.

  Two weeks is a long holiday.

Some nouns denoting money, time and distance take a singular verb, as the specific quantity or amount is considered a whole.

Now read these sentences.

  Either Ramesh or Naren is in the wrong.

  Neither Kamal nor Rahim was present at the conference.

Two or more singular subjects connected by or, nor, either…. or, neither… nor, take a singular verb.

Observe the following sentences.

  Either Rahim or his brothers have to be invited.

  Neither his friends nor Victor is aware of the news.

When two subjects, one singular and the other plural, are connected by ‘neither….nor’, ‘either….or’, the verb agrees in person with the subject nearer to it.

Read the sentences given below.

  Kumar, as well as his friends, has won the prize.

  The captain, with all his sailors, was drowned.

  The students along with their teacher, have gone on a visit to the Museum.

When two subjects, one singular and the other plural, are connected by ‘as well as’, ‘with’, ‘along with’, ‘together with’, the verb agrees with the first subject. If the first subject is singular the verb is singular; if the first subject is plural, the verb is plural.

 

Task 1

I  Choose the correct option and complete the sentences.

1.  Manoj was (was, were) present along with his parents.

2.  Each of these boys has (has, have) passed.

3.  Neither Lekha nor Leela has (has, have) been selected.

4.  Every man, woman and child was (was, were) happy.

5.  One of the machines is (is, are) defective.

6.  A number of books is (is, are) missing.

7.  Seker or his brothers have (has, have) done it.

8.  To make a promise and then not to keep it is (is, are) dishonesty.

9.  One or the other of those men have (has, have) lodged a complaint.

10.  Each leaf and each flower was (was, were) stripped off the tree.

 

Task 2

II.  Identify the errors in each of the following sentences and rewrite them Correctly.

1.  Either Shyam or Ram have to pay the fine.  have has

2.  Abdul as well as Karim deserve praise. deserve deserves

3.  Ten thousand rupees a month are an insufficient income. are is

4.  Many a student were awarded at the function. were was

5.  Neither Veena nor her sisters has been informed of the accident. has have

6.  Mithra as well as her daughters enjoy singing. enjoy enjoys

7.  You, who is my friend, should help me. is are

8.  My scissors is missing. is are

9.  A variety of pleasing objects charm the eye. charm  charms

10.  Sixty miles are a long distance. are is


Tags : On the Rule of the Road | Prose | By A.G. Gardiner On the Rule of the Road | Prose | By A.G. Gardiner
Study Material, Lecturing Notes, Assignment, Reference, Wiki description explanation, brief detail


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