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Chapter: XML and Web Services : XML Content Management and Security

XML Content Management and Security

The Semantic Web is a major research initiative of the World Wide Web Consortium

Semantic Web:

―The Semantic Web is a major research initiative of the World Wide Web Consortium


(W3C) to create a metadata-rich Web of resources that can describe themselves not only by how they should be displayed (HTML) or syntactically (XML), but also by the meaning of the metadata.‖ – From W3C Semantic Web Activity Page


―The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation.‖ –Tim Berners-Lee, James Hendler, Ora Lassila,The Semantic Web, Scientific American, May 2001




Difficulties to find, present, access, or maintain available electronic information on the



Need for a data representation to enable software products (agents) to provide intelligent access to heterogeneous and distributed information.


The Semantic Stack and Ontology Languages:

RDF [ Resource Description Framework ]:


Express meaning on the web that machines can understand.


W3 Specification for Xml code:


<person name=―Jane‖>

<sells product=―books‖/>


</person> Rdf code


<rdf:Description about=―[Jane]‖ xmlns:my=―[my]‖>






RDF consists of two parts

– RDF Model (a set of triples)

– RDF Syntax (different XML serialization syntaxes)

RDF Schema for definition of Vocabularies (simple Ontologies) for RDF (and in RDF)


RDF  Data  Model:




– A resource is a thing you talk about (can reference)


– Resources have URI‘s


– RDF definitions are itself Resources (linkage)




-                                             slots, defines relationship to other resources or atomic values




– ―Resource has Property with Value‖


– (Values can be resources or atomic XML data)


-                                             Similar to Frame Systems


A simple Example:




– ―Ora Lassila is the creator of the resource  http://www.w3.org/Home/Lassila




–       Resource     (subject)      http://www.w3.org/Home/Lassila


–Property (predicate)  http://www.schema.org/ - Creator://www.schema.org/#Creator


–           Value       (object)       ―Ora Lassila‖

Directed graph:


Collection Containers:


Multiple occurrences of the same Property Type doesn‘t establish a relation between the values


– The Millers own a boat, a bike, and a TV set


– The Millers need (a car or a truck)


– (Sarah and Bob) bought a new car


RDF defines three special Resources:


– Bag  unordered values          rdf:Bag

– Sequence  ordered values rdf:Seq

– Alternative        single value rdf:Alt


• Core RDF does not enforce ‗set‘ semantics amongst values


A Formal Model of RDF:

RDF itself is mathematically straightforward:


– Basic Definitions


•                           Resources.


•                           Properties ÌResources    called


•                           Literals


• Statements = Resources        ´ Properties


X{Resources Èliterals}


– Typing


•                           rdf:type Î Properties


•                           {RDF:type, sub, obj} Î Statements Þ obj


Î Resources

Formal Model of RDF II:





                      rdf:predicate, rdf:subject, rdf:objectProperties


                     Reification of a triplepred, sub, objof Statements


is an element r of Resources representing the reified triple and the elements s1, s2, s3, and s4 of Statements such that


– s1: {RDF:predicate, r, pred}


– s2: {RDF:subject, r, subj}


– s3: {RDF:object, r, obj}


– s4: {RDF:type, r, [RDF:Statement]}


– Collections


RDF:Seq, RDF:Bag, and RDF:Alt Resources-Properties


                     There is a subset of Properties corresponding to the ordinals (1, 2, 3, …) called Ord. We


refer to


                     elements of Ord as RDF:_1, RDF:_2, RDF:_3, …


RDF  Syntax I:


Data model does not enforce particular syntax


•        Specification suggests many different syntaxes based on XML


General form:


Resulting Graph:



<rdf:Description about=‖http://www.w3.org/Home/Lassila‖>


<s:Creator>Ora Lassila</s:Creator>


<s:createdWith rdf:resource=―http://www.w3c.org/amaya‖/>






RDF Schema (RDFS):


RDF just defines the data model


                     Need for definition of vocabularies for the data model – an Ontology Language!

                     RDF schemas are Web resources (and have URIs) and can be described using RDF RDF-Schema: Example:

Rdfs: subclass Of:

<rdfs:description about=„Xyz:Minivan―>

<rdfs:subclassOf about=„xyz:Van―/>




<rdfs:description about=„myvan―>


<rdf:type about=„xyz:MiniVan―/>




Predicate Logic Consequences:


Forall X: type(X,MiniVan) -> type(X,Van).


Forall X: subclassOf(X,MiniVan) -> subclassOf(X,Van).




<rdf:description about=„possesses―> <rdf:type about=„….property―/> <rdfs:domain about=„person―/> <rdfs:range about=„vehicle―/>



<rdf:description about=„peter―>






Predicate Logic Consequences:


Forall X,Y: possesses (X,Y) -> (type(X,person) &




Simplification      rules:


                     People specifying text for arbitrary RDF processors can use any simplification


                     Processors of arbitrary RDF therefore must accept all simplifications


                     Special-purpose XML formats can be RDF- compliant while disallowing simplifications, requiring them, or exploiting them in specific ways


Containers vs. Multiple values:



                     A property can appear more than once with different values


                     What is true of a container isn‘t necessarily true of its contents and vice versa


                     ―aboutEach‖ lets us get to the contents when we already have a container


                     ―aboutEachPrefix‖ in effect manufactures a container based on URLs


Reified       statements:

                     We reify statements so that we can talk about them rather than asserting them

                     ―Charles Dickens is the author of Bleak House‖ asserts a property of Charles Dickens

                     ―Jack believes that Charles Dickens is the author of War and Peace‖ asserts a property of

Jack, not Charles Dickens


RDF  Classes:

Are groups of Web resources


                     Have URLs to identify them


                     The special class ―rdfs:Literal‖ consists of all possible RDF string values





It is aExchange Language – Web Service for Business Process Design. Microsoft – runnable on all platforms. It Written format is XML. It is a Biz Talk Application Designer.




It Enabling technology for new standards and descriptions around existing technologies => develope language which is able to handle.


It is a Business imperative to ease the automation of business processes& to describe a standard for reuse by other tools.


Relationship with WSDL:

n        Grounding of a XLANG service description is defined by using WSDL


n        XLANG describes the behavior as part of a business process


n        Actions in XLANG = operations of WSDL


Business Process (I):

n        Contract between two ore more parties


n        XLANG service description describes the behavior


n        It is used a map – describes the connections between the ports


n        Each port is added to the map



n        Correlation tokens


n        For automated instance routing


n        Messages to the correct port and instance


¨                  Instance: interaction with which the behavior of the service is represented


n        Calculated lifetime


n        Correlation set


n        Correlation group




WSFL describes Web Service compositions. It is a Usage patterns of Web Services: describes workflow or business processes. It is a Interaction patterns: describes overall partner interactions.


Using Flow Models:

                     ―Public flows‖ provide a representation of the service behavior as required by its users.

–   Typically, an abstraction of the actual flow begin executed

–   Defines a ―behavioral contract‖ for the service.

–   Internal implementation need not be flow-based.


– Flows are reusable: specify components types, but not what specific services should be used!


–   ―Private flows‖ are the flows executed in practice.

–   WSFL serves as a ―portable flow implementation language‖

                     Same language is used in WSFL to represent both types of processes.


Global Models:

n        Global models describe how the composed Web Services interact.


n                  RosettaNet automated.


n                  Like an ADL.


n        Interactions are modeled as links between endpoints of two service interfaces (WSDL operations).

n        An essentially distributed description of the interaction.

Discovery: Finding Meta-data:

                     Static binding requires service ―libraries‖.

                     Dynamic binding requires runtime discovery of meta-data

Web Content Management:


                     Every thing from price list to contact list, home page ,personal info are becoming a internet content


                     Volume of content on the internet continuous to grow in size & types of content.

                     Requirements for Solid web content management solution & dynamic content distribution




                     Web Content Management is generally defined as a combination of clearly defines roles, formal process and supporting system architecture used to produce, collaborate on, maintain ,publish & distribute to the web.


Web Content:

                     Any information or data on the web


                     We must identify the types of content we need to manage & how content assets relate to one another


                     Role to manage the content


                     Formal process to manage the workflow based on the roles.

                     Web Content Management success is investing in information model & Design


Based on the Characteristics of content & Business model:

–   Straight forward from data base to the web

–   Automated, dynamic generation of a web site

–   Managing text files

–   Large volumes of multimedia based collection

–   Newly created Content

–   Legacy data

Components of Content Management Workflow:

                     Content – Input phase

–   Content Entry

– Content – Repository phase

– Store & Managed

– Content Delivery Phase

– Distributed to web



                     Created by the organization & imported into the content management system

                     These contents can be created in any format-Word, HTML, SGML & XML

                     Through directly from data base

                     XML is the standard format



Database import:


                     Data may come from the external database within same org or partner organization (ERP)


Legacy Inclusion


                     Already Existing data. E.g.: journal


                     In some other format – Conversion is required


Content Repository


                     Store & Management




                     Database – index, relational (or) object oriented


                     Database can be stored direction (or) pointing to external pointers


                     Importing is the methodology


Revision Content – Check in/check out


–   Portion of content can be changed depending on the role


–   Roles are set for each and every author


–   Locking


Version Control


–   Complete body of the content is changed


Content Assembly


–   Analysis of meta data about each contents & assemble them for final web delivery


Content – Delivery phase


                     Common interface b/w the content & end user must be set


                     XML – is delivery neutral form


Print rendition


–   Print media


–   XML – XSL – Content


Web Rendition


–   Web output (XML – XSL – O/P)


WAP/Mobile Rendition




Context Syndication


–   Syndication from single body of content to multiple end users


–   Automate the process


–   Example for web document creation – WAPDav


<?xml version=―1.0‖> <D:acl xmlns:D:‖DAV‖>




<D:principal> <D:href>www.xx.com</D:href> <D:principal>















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