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What is a tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF)?
The most common classification system of tracheoesophageal fistulas, illustrated in Figure 68.1, is that of Gross. The incidence of esophageal atresia (EA) and TEF is approximately 1 in 3,000 births. Table 68.1 provides a description of the various types of TEF and their approximate incidence.
Embryologically, the trachea and esophagus both originate from the ventral diverticulum of the primitive foregut. They normally become separated by the eso-phagotracheal septum. Since the trachea is situated ante-rior to the esophagus, the fistula is located on the posterior aspect of the trachea and usually just proximal to the carina.
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