Wellesley and the Marathas
The only power that remained outside the purview of the subsidiary system was the Marathas. Nana Fadnavis provided the leadership to the Marathas. He was responsible for the preservation of independence of his country from the onslaught of the British. By extending a helping hand to Cornwallis against Tipu he was able to acquire a large slice of territory as the share of the Marathas from the kingdom of Mysore. His death in 1800 removed the last great Maratha leader.
Peshwa Baji Rao II, despite his stately appearance and immense learning, lacked political wisdom. The infighting among the Maratha leaders proved to be self-destructive. Jaswant Rao Holkar and Daulat Rao Scindia were fighting against each other. The Peshwa supported Scindia against Holkar. Holkar marched against the Peshwa. The combined forces of Scindia and the Peshwa were utterly defeated. The city of Poona fell at the feet of the victor who did not hesitate to commit all sorts of atrocities, including the torturing of rich inhabitants. With rich booty Holkar returned to his capital.
Peshwa Baji Rao II was in great danger, so he fled to Bassein where he signed the Treaty of Bassein with the British in 1802. It was a subsidiary treaty and the Peshwa was recognized as the head of the Maratha kingdom. Although it was nominal, the treaty was considered the crowning triumph of Wellesley's Subsidiary System. In accordance with this document, the foreign policy of the Marathas came under British control and therefore any action of the Maratha chiefs against the British was successfully prevented. That is the reason why the Marathas considered the treaty as a document of surrendering their independence.
As an immediate, theresponse to the Treaty of
Bassein British troops marched under the command of Arthur Wellesley towards
Poona and restored the Peshwa to his position. The forces of Holkar vanished
from the Maratha capital.