![if !IE]> <![endif]>
Weathering and Mass 1 Movement
Weathering is the disintegration and decomposition of materials of the earth’s crust by their exposure to atmosphere.
Movement of huge volumes of weathered rock material down the slope due to gravity is called mass movement or mass wastage. Example: rock slide, land slide, debris fall, mud flow.
The nature and magnitude of weathering differs from place to place and region to region. Weathering is affected and controlled by factors such as temperature, rock structure, land slope and vegetation. There are three types of weathering
· Physical weathering,
· Chemical weathering and
· Biological weathering
It is the breakdown of rocks without changing their chemical composition, through the action of physical forces. The constant freezing and thawing of rocks during the night and day leads to the expansion and contraction of rocks. Cracks are formed and disintegration occurs eventually. Exfoliation, block disintegration, granular disintegration etc., are the different types of weathering.
The alternate heating and cooling on rounded rock surfaces leads to the peeling of rocks, layer by layer like an onion. This is called exfoliation. Sheeting and shattering are the other forms of exfoliation.
Granular disintegration takes place in crystalline rocks where the grains of the rocks become loose and fall out. This is due to the action of temperature and frost.
Repeated expansion and contraction of rocks during day and night respectively causes stress on the joints of the rocks which results in block disintegration
Disintegration and decomposition of rocks duetochemicalreactionsiscalledChemical Weathering. This is predominantly high in the hot and humid regions such as the equatorial, tropical and sub tropical zones. Chemical weathering takes place through the processes of oxidation, carbonation, solution, and hydration. The agents of Chemical weathering are Oxygen, Carbon-dioxide and Hydrogen.
Oxygen in the atmosphere reacts with the iron found in rocks, thus leads to the formation of iron oxide. This process is known as oxidation, which results in the weakening of rocks.
Carbonation is the mixing of water with the atmospheric carbon-dioxide, forming carbonic acid. Carbonation is important in the formation of caves, in limestone region. When the carbonic acid reacts with the carbonate rocks, the rocks get disintegrated.
The process of dissolution of rock substances in water result in the loosening of the rock particles. This inturn breaks down the rocks.
Certain chemicals in the rock enlarge in size in humid conditions. These minerals found in the rock swell and this results in the development of cracks and the rock wears down. This type of weathering is called hydration.
Biological weathering occurs due to the penetration and expansion of plant roots, earthworms, burrowing animals (rabbits, rats) and some human activities.
Copyright © 2018-2023 BrainKart.com; All Rights Reserved. Developed by Therithal info, Chennai.