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Chapter 2 | Geography | 8th Social Science - Weather and Climate | 8th Social Science : Geography : Chapter 2 : Weather and Climate

Chapter: 8th Social Science : Geography : Chapter 2 : Weather and Climate

Weather and Climate

Learning Objectives ▶To understand the importance of weather and climate ▶To learn about the nature of the elements of weather and climate. ▶To know the instruments used for measuring weather elements ▶To be able to recognize the kind of weather and climate of a place

Unit - 2

Weather and Climate


 

Learning Objectives

To understand the importance of weather and climate

To learn about the nature of the elements of weather and climate.

To know the instruments used for measuring weather elements

To be able to recognize the kind of weather and climate of a place

 

Introduction

Climate is one of the basic elements in the natural environment. It affects landforms, soil types, fauna and flora. It influences man to a large extent.

In a small village in Dharmapuri district, Tamil nadu, in the month of May, Yuktha enjoys her vacation with her brother and family. She always wears cotton cloths. Her mother makes food like porridge, buttermilk, lemonade, watermelon etc which suits to summer. At the same time (In May month) Tiya who lives in Auckland, New Zealand with her father and mother wear fleece jacket, jeans, gloves and socks. Her mother makes hot food like sandwich, salmon, oatmeal, soups etc. Yuktha celebrates Christmas with friends in winter, where as Tiya celebrates Christmas during summer. Can you think of why?

Yuktha and Tiya stay in two different hemispheres and have different way of life. This is because of the difference in weather condition of those places.

Weather and climate influence man’s activities like what we eat, wear, the house in which we live and work, farming, sailing, fishing, modern transport and even our play time etc. Hence one should have knowledge about the weather and climate. So, in this chapter we are going to learn about weather and climate, its elements and how they influence our lifestyle.

 

 

Weather

Weather is the day today conditions(state) of the atmosphere at any place as regards sunshine, temperature, cloud cover, wind fog condition, air pressure, humidity, precipitation and such other elements. It refers to short periods like a day, a week, a month or a little longer and as such the weather changes from time to time in a day and one period to the other in an year. In the morning the weather might be sunny with a clear sky in a place and evening there might be clouds and rain. Similarly the weather is cool in winter and hot in summer.

Earth's atmosphere is a layer of gases surrounding the planet earth and retained by the earth's gravity. It contains about 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 0.97% argon, 0.03% carbon dioxide and 0.04% trace amounts of other gases and water vapour.

Find out

Do all the planets in the solar system have atmosphere?

Answer: In addition to Earth, many of the other astronomical objects in the solar system have atmospheres. These include all the gas giants, as well as Mars, Venus and Pluto. Several moons and other bodies also have atmospheres, as do comets and the sun. There is evidence that extrasolar planets can have an atmosphere.

We often hear people saying “Today the climate is good or bad”. It is incorrect to say like that. Instead it has to be said that the weather is good or bad. We could observe the television news readers saying weather report and not the climate report for e.g. cricket match have been postponed due to bad weather etc.

 

Climate

Climate is generally defined as the average conditions (state) of the weather of a place or a region. The average atmospheric conditions are determined by measuring the weather elements for a long period of time which is usually for 35 years. The elements of weather and climate are the same. The climate does not change often like weather.

The word Climate is derived from the ancient Greek word "Klimo" which means "Inclination".

 

Controlling factors of weather and climate

Angle of the sun’s rays, the length of daytime, altitude, distribution of land and water bodies, location and direction of mountain ranges, air pressure, winds and ocean currents are the major factors which affect the weather and climate of a region.

The earth is spherical in shape. So, the sun’s rays fall unevenly on the earth’s surface. The Polar regions receive slanting sun’s rays. Hence there is little or no sunlight, thus there is an extreme cold winters. Vertical sun’s ray’s fall directly on regions around the equator, hence the climate is very hot and almost no winters. The difference in temperature makes the air and water move in currents. Warm air rises and creates more space for air beneath, while cool air settles down.

Scientific study of weather is called Meteorology and the scientific study of climate is called climatology.

ACTIVITY:

Discuss in the class room how altitude, distribution of land and water bodies, direction of mountain ranges, air pressure, winds and ocean currents affect weather/climate.

 

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